Yes, Viruses Used To Be Named After Places. Here's Why They Aren't Anymore.
Oct 10, · The Ebola virus that caused the devastating outbreak in West Africa between 20didn't even have a name just 38 years ago, when it . Ebola was first recognized in , and since then it has appeared sporadically. The virus gets its name from a river in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, where it was first recognized. (Click Ebola Virusfor more information.).
The last is the most recent species to be named and was isolated from Angolan free-tailed bats in Sierra Leone. Each species of the genus Ebolavirus has one member virus, and four of these cause Ebola virus disease EVD in humans, a type of hemorrhagic fever having a very high case fatality rate. The Reston virus has caused EVD in other primates. Researchers have found evidence of Ebola infection in three species of fruit bat. The bats show no symptoms of the disease, indicating that they may be the main natural reservoirs of the Ebolavirus.
It is possible that there are other reservoirs and vectors. Understanding where the virus incubates between outbreaks and how it is transmitted between species will help protect humans and other primates from the what place ebola virus name. The researchers found that bats of three species — Franquet's epauletted fruit bat Epomops franquetithe hammer-headed bat Hypsignathus monstrosus and the little collared fruit bat Myonycteris torquata — had either genetic material from the Ebola virus, known as RNA how to make a good earthing pit, or evidence of an immune response to the disease.
The bats showed no symptoms themselves. The entry pathway that the virus uses is a key step in its cycle. Several pathways have been suggested for Ebolavirus such as phagocytosis and clathrin and caveolin mediated endocytosis. However, Nanbo et al. They discovered that Ebolavirus uses macropinocytosis to enter the host cells.
Induction of macropinocytosis leads to the formation of macropinocytosis-specific endosomes macropinosomes how to block streaming sites, which are large enough to accommodate Ebola virions. This discovery was proven by the fact that Ebolavirus co-localizes with sorting nexin 5 SNX5which consists of a large family of peripheral membrane proteins that associate with newly formed macropinosomes.
Also, blocking the macropinocytosis pathway has been proven to stop Ebolavirus from entering the cells. According to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses ICTVthe name of the genus Ebolavirus is always to be capitalizeditalicizednever abbreviated, and to be preceded by the word "genus".
The names of its members ebolaviruses are to be written how to write a school resume lower case, are what year did thomas edison invented the light bulb italicized, and used without articles. A virus of the family Filoviridae is a member of the genus Ebolavirus if .
The genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus were originally classified as the species of the now-obsolete genus Filovirus. This proposal was implemented in Washington, D. Inanother proposal was made in Washington, D. Extrapolating backwardsEbolavirus and Marburgvirus probably diverged several thousand years ago. The genus Ebolavirus has been organized into five species; however, the nomenclature has proven somewhat controversial, with many authors continuing to use common names rather than species names when referring to these viruses.
Consequently, ina group of researchers recommended that the name "Ebola virus" be adopted for a subclassification [note 1] within the species Zaire ebolavirus and that similar common names be formally adopted for other Ebolavirus species. In particular, "Ebola virus" does not have an official meaning recognized by ICTV, and rather they continue to use and recommend only the species designation Zaire ebolavirus.
As of [update]none of the Ebolavirus species contain members divergent enough to receive more than one "virus" designation. A study isolated antibodies from fruit bats in Bangladesh, against Ebola Zaire and Reston virusesthus identifying potential virus hosts and signs of the filoviruses in Asia.
A recent alignment-free analysis of Ebola virus genomes from the current outbreak reveals the presence of three short DNA how to turn old pictures into digital that appear nowhere in the human genome, suggesting that the identification of specific species sequences may prove to be useful for the development of both diagnosis and therapeutics. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Genus of viruses. This article is about a biological genus. For the specific virus responsible for the majority of human infections, see Ebola virus. The distinction of treating "Ebola virus" as a subset of the species rather than as a synonym for the species is rarely used. Archives of Virology. PMC PMID The Journal of General Virology. Retrieved 28 July Centers for Disease Control. Retrieved 18 October Journal of Infection and Public Health. Archived from the original PDF on Retrieved The emergence of Ebola as a global health security threat: From 'lessons learned' to coordinated multilateral containment efforts.
J Global Infect Dis [serial online] [cited Mar 1]; — In van Regenmortel, M. San Diego, U. S2CID In Fauquet, C. PLOS Pathogens. International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses.
Archived from the original on February 14, The Lancet. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Archived from the original on New York Times. ISBN Ebola Cote D'Ivoire Outbreaks. Stanford University. World Health Organization. Emerging Infectious Diseases. Bibcode : Sci Molecular Biology and Evolution. Bibcode : PNAS BMC Evolutionary Biology. Anthony, Jonathan H. Ian Lipkin, Stephen P. Luby, and Peter Daszak Pinho, Paulo J.
Ferreira CS1 maint: uses authors parameter link. Ebola virus disease Ebola virus disease treatment research Ebola River.
The Hot Zone book. Marburg virus disease Marburg. Lloviu cuevavirus LLOV. Mengla virus MLAV. Xilang striavirus. Huangjiao thamnovirus. Commons Wikispecies. Authority control GND : Categories : Animal virology Biological weapons Ebolaviruses Tropical diseases Virus-related cutaneous conditions Zoonoses Filoviridae Chiroptera-borne diseases Virus genera.
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Ebola virus under transmission electron microscope. Zaire ebolavirus. Bundibugyo virus BDBV. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ebolavirus.
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But the history of the Ebola virus goes back further. It was first identified in Zaire (modern day Democratic Republic of the Congo) in The first victim was a schoolmaster in the village of. Oct 13, · And so Ebola joined the list of viruses named after rivers. Other members include the mosquito-borne Ross river virus, which causes a debilitating infection and is named after a river in northern Queensland in Australia, and the Machupo virus, which causes Bolivian hemorrhagic fever, or "black typhus," and is named after a Bolivian river. Sep 18, · Ebola virus disease (EVD), one of the deadliest viral diseases, was discovered in when two consecutive outbreaks of fatal hemorrhagic fever occurred in different parts of Central Africa. The first outbreak occurred in the Democratic Republic of Congo (formerly Zaire) in a village near the Ebola River, which gave the virus its name.
Ebola , also known as Ebola virus disease EVD or Ebola hemorrhagic fever EHF , is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids , such as blood from infected humans or other animals. Control of outbreaks requires coordinated medical services and community engagement. The disease was first identified in , in two simultaneous outbreaks: one in Nzara a town in South Sudan and the other in Yambuku Democratic Republic of the Congo , a village near the Ebola River from which the disease takes its name.
The length of time between exposure to the virus and the development of symptoms incubation period is between two and 21 days,   and usually between four and ten days. Symptoms usually begin with a sudden influenza -like stage characterised by feeling tired , fever , weakness , decreased appetite , muscular pain , joint pain , headache, and sore throat.
In some cases, internal and external bleeding may occur. Recovery may begin between seven and 14 days after first symptoms. Those who survive often have ongoing muscular and joint pain, liver inflammation , and decreased hearing, and may have continued tiredness, continued weakness, decreased appetite, and difficulty returning to pre-illness weight.
Survivors develop antibodies against Ebola that last at least 10 years, but it is unclear whether they are immune to additional infections. EVD in humans is caused by four of five viruses of the genus Ebolavirus. Ebolaviruses contain single-stranded, non-infectious RNA genomes. As with all filoviruses , ebolavirus virions are filamentous particles that may appear in the shape of a shepherd's crook, of a "U" or of a "6," and they may be coiled, toroid or branched. Their life cycle is thought to begin with a virion attaching to specific cell-surface receptors such as C-type lectins , DC-SIGN , or integrins , which is followed by fusion of the viral envelope with cellular membranes.
The most abundant protein produced is the nucleoprotein, whose concentration in the host cell determines when L switches from gene transcription to genome replication. Replication of the viral genome results in full-length, positive-strand antigenomes that are, in turn, transcribed into genome copies of negative-strand virus progeny. Virions bud off from the cell, gaining their envelopes from the cellular membrane from which they bud.
The mature progeny particles then infect other cells to repeat the cycle. It is believed that between people, Ebola disease spreads only by direct contact with the blood or other body fluids of a person who has developed symptoms of the disease.
Most people spread the virus through blood, feces and vomit. The Ebola virus may be able to persist for more than three months in the semen after recovery, which could lead to infections via sexual intercourse.
The potential for widespread infections in countries with medical systems capable of observing correct medical isolation procedures is considered low. Dead bodies remain infectious; thus, people handling human remains in practices such as traditional burial rituals or more modern processes such as embalming are at risk.
Health-care workers treating people with Ebola are at greatest risk of infection. Human-to-human transmission of EBOV through the air has not been reported to occur during EVD outbreaks,  and airborne transmission has only been demonstrated in very strict laboratory conditions, and then only from pigs to primates , but not from primates to primates.
Airborne transmission among humans is theoretically possible due to the presence of Ebola virus particles in saliva, which can be discharged into the air with a cough or sneeze, but observational data from previous epidemics suggests the actual risk of airborne transmission is low.
Although it is not entirely clear how Ebola initially spreads from animals to humans, the spread is believed to involve direct contact with an infected wild animal or fruit bat. Animals may become infected when they eat fruit partially eaten by bats carrying the virus. Evidence indicates that both domestic dogs and pigs can also be infected with EBOV. The natural reservoir for Ebola has yet to be confirmed; however, bats are considered to be the most likely candidate.
Bats were known to roost in the cotton factory in which the first cases of the and outbreaks were observed, and they have also been implicated in Marburg virus infections in and In a — survey of 1, animals including bats from Gabon and the Republic of the Congo , immunoglobulin G IgG immune defense molecules indicative of Ebola infection were found in three bat species; at various periods of study, between 2.
Between and , in 30, mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and arthropods sampled from regions of EBOV outbreaks, no Ebola virus was detected apart from some genetic traces found in six rodents belonging to the species Mus setulosus and Praomys and one shrew Sylvisorex ollula collected from the Central African Republic.
However, the high rates of death in these species resulting from EBOV infection make it unlikely that these species represent a natural reservoir for the virus.
Deforestation has been mentioned as a possible contributor to recent outbreaks, including the West African Ebola virus epidemic. Index cases of EVD have often been close to recently deforested lands.
Like other filoviruses , EBOV replicates very efficiently in many cells , producing large amounts of virus in monocytes , macrophages , dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells , fibroblasts , and adrenal gland cells. EBOV is thought to infect humans through contact with mucous membranes or skin breaks. Endothelial cells may be infected within three days after exposure to the virus.
This damage occurs due to the synthesis of Ebola virus glycoprotein GP , which reduces the availability of specific integrins responsible for cell adhesion to the intercellular structure and causes liver damage, leading to improper clotting. The widespread bleeding that occurs in affected people causes swelling and shock due to loss of blood volume.
After infection, a secreted glycoprotein , small soluble glycoprotein sGP or GP is synthesised. EBOV replication overwhelms protein synthesis of infected cells and the host immune defences. The GP forms a trimeric complex , which tethers the virus to the endothelial cells. The sGP forms a dimeric protein that interferes with the signalling of neutrophils , another type of white blood cell.
This enables the virus to evade the immune system by inhibiting early steps of neutrophil activation. Filoviral infection also interferes with proper functioning of the innate immune system.
When EVD is suspected, travel, work history, and exposure to wildlife are important factors with respect to further diagnostic efforts. Possible non-specific laboratory indicators of EVD include a low platelet count ; an initially decreased white blood cell count followed by an increased white blood cell count ; elevated levels of the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase ALT and aspartate aminotransferase AST ; and abnormalities in blood clotting often consistent with disseminated intravascular coagulation DIC such as a prolonged prothrombin time , partial thromboplastin time , and bleeding time.
The specific diagnosis of EVD is confirmed by isolating the virus, detecting its RNA or proteins, or detecting antibodies against the virus in a person's blood. Early symptoms of EVD may be similar to those of other diseases common in Africa, including malaria and dengue fever. The complete differential diagnosis is extensive and requires consideration of many other infectious diseases such as typhoid fever , shigellosis , rickettsial diseases , cholera , sepsis , borreliosis , EHEC enteritis , leptospirosis , scrub typhus , plague , Q fever , candidiasis , histoplasmosis , trypanosomiasis , visceral leishmaniasis , measles , and viral hepatitis among others.
People who care for those infected with Ebola should wear protective clothing including masks, gloves, gowns and goggles. The infected person should be in barrier-isolation from other people. To disinfect surfaces, some lipid solvents such as some alcohol-based products, detergents, sodium hypochlorite bleach or calcium hypochlorite bleaching powder , and other suitable disinfectants may be used at appropriate concentrations.
Education of the general public about the risk factors for Ebola infection and of the protective measures individuals may take to prevent infection is recommended by the World Health Organization.
Bushmeat , an important source of protein in the diet of some Africans, should be handled and prepared with appropriate protective clothing and thoroughly cooked before consumption.
Since , such animal outbreaks have been monitored to predict and prevent Ebola outbreaks in humans. If a person with Ebola disease dies, direct contact with the body should be avoided. Transportation crews are instructed to follow a certain isolation procedure, should anyone exhibit symptoms resembling EVD. The CDC recommends monitoring for the symptoms of Ebola disease for those both at "low risk" and at higher risk.
In laboratories where diagnostic testing is carried out, biosafety level 4-equivalent containment is required. Isolation refers to separating those who are sick from those who are not.
Quarantine refers to separating those who may have been exposed to a disease until they either show signs of the disease or are no longer at risk. Contact tracing is considered important to contain an outbreak. It involves finding everyone who had close contact with infected individuals and monitoring them for signs of illness for 21 days.
If any of these contacts comes down with the disease, they should be isolated, tested and treated. Then the process is repeated, tracing the contacts' contacts.
While there is no approved [ by whom? Food and Drug Administration FDA advises people to be careful of advertisements making unverified or fraudulent claims of benefits supposedly gained from various anti-Ebola products. In October , the U. Treatment is primarily supportive in nature. Blood products such as packed red blood cells , platelets , or fresh frozen plasma may also be used. Several experimental treatments are being studied.
Where hospital care is not possible, the WHO's guidelines for home care have been relatively successful. Recommendations include using towels soaked in a bleach solution when moving infected people or bodies and also applying bleach on stains.
It is also recommended that the caregivers wash hands with bleach solutions and cover their mouth and nose with a cloth. Intensive care is often used in the developed world. Death, if it occurs, follows typically six to sixteen days after symptoms appear and is often due to low blood pressure from fluid loss.
If an infected person survives, recovery may be quick and complete. Prolonged cases are often complicated by the occurrence of long-term problems, such as inflammation of the testicles , joint pains , fatigue, hearing loss, mood and sleep disturbances, muscular pain , abdominal pain, menstrual abnormalities , miscarriages , skin peeling , or hair loss.
Ebola can stay in some body parts like the eyes,  breasts, and testicles after infection. The disease typically occurs in outbreaks in tropical regions of Sub-Saharan Africa. The first known outbreak of EVD was identified only after the fact. The Sudan outbreak infected people and killed The first identifiable case in Sudan occurred on 27 June in a storekeeper in a cotton factory in Nzara , who was hospitalised on 30 June and died on 6 July. The first person infected with the disease was the village school's headmaster Mabalo Lokela , who began displaying symptoms on 26 August He was originally believed to have malaria and given quinine.
However, his symptoms continued to worsen, and he was admitted to Yambuku Mission Hospital on 5 September. Lokela died on 8 September 14 days after he began displaying symptoms. Soon after Lokela's death, others who had been in contact with him also died, and people in Yambuku began to panic. The country's Minister of Health and Zaire President Mobutu Sese Seko declared the entire region, including Yambuku and the country's capital, Kinshasa , a quarantine zone.
No-one was permitted to enter or leave the area, and roads, waterways, and airfields were placed under martial law. Schools, businesses and social organisations were closed. Muyembe took a blood sample from a Belgian nun; this sample would eventually be used by Peter Piot to identify the previously unknown Ebola virus. Piot concluded that Belgian nuns had inadvertently started the epidemic by giving unnecessary vitamin injections to pregnant women without sterilizing the syringes and needles.
The outbreak lasted 26 days and the quarantine lasted two weeks. Researchers speculated that the disease disappeared due to the precautions taken by locals, the quarantine of the area, and discontinuing the injections. The virus responsible for the initial outbreak, first thought to be Marburg virus , was later identified as a new type of virus related to the genus Marburgvirus.