Aug 04, · The volcano Mount Vesuvius erupted in A.D. 79 for two days, burying the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii under ash and pyroclastic flows, killing an estimated 16, people. Vesuvius contains andesite lava, known for its explosive eruptions. Pliny the Elder wrote about the eruption in detail in two letters written to Tacitus. The eruption of Mount Vesuvius was catastrophic. The eruption is thought to have killed more than 30, people. The cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii were both completely buried in the resulting.
It is one of several volcanoes which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Vesuvius fause of a large cone partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure. The only surviving eyewitness account of the event consists of two letters by Pliny the Younger to the historian Dause.
Vesuvius has erupted many times since, and is the only volcano on the European mainland to have erupted within what kind of damage did mount vesuvius cause last hundred years.
Today, it is regarded as one of the most dangerous volcanoes in the world because of the population of 3, people living near enough to be affected by an eruption, within the danger zone, making it the most densely populated volcanic region in the world, as well as its tendency towards violently explosive eruptions, which are now known as Plinian eruptions.
Vesuvius has a long historic and literary tradition. It was considered a divinity of the Genius type at the time of the eruption of AD it appears under the inscribed name Vesuvius as a serpent in the decorative frescos of many larariaor household shrines, surviving from Pompeii.
The Romans regarded Mount Vesvius to be devoted to Hercules. With the assistance of the gods he pacified the region cquse went on. The facts behind the tradition, if any, remain unknown, whatt does whether Herculaneum was named after it. An epigram by the poet Martial in 88 AD suggests that rid Venuspatroness of Pompeii, and Hercules were worshipped in the region devastated by the eruption how to scan a document on iphone Vesuvius was a name of the volcano in frequent use by the authors of the late Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire.
Its collateral forms were VesaevusVesevusVesbius and Vesvius. Many scholars since then have offered an etymology. As peoples of varying ethnicity and language occupied Campania in the Roman Iron Agethe etymology depends to a large degree on the presumption of what language was spoken there at the time.
Naples was settled by Greeks, as the name Nea-polis"New City", testifies. The Oscansan Italic people, lived in the countryside. The Latins also competed for the occupation of Campania. Etruscan settlements were in the vicinity. Other peoples of unknown provenance are said to have vesuvus there at some time by various ancient authors. Vesuvius is a "humpbacked" peak, consisting of a large cone Gran Cono partially encircled by the steep rim of a summit caldera caused by the collapse of an earlier and originally much higher structure called Mount Somma.
For this reason, the volcano is also called Somma-Vesuvius or Somma-Vesuvio. The caldera started forming during an eruption around 17, years ago,    and was enlarged by later paroxysmal eruptions,  ending in the one of AD This structure has given its name to the term " somma volcano ", which describes any volcano with a summit caldera surrounding a newer cone.
The height of the main cone has been constantly changed vesubius eruptions but was 1, m 4, ft in The slopes of the volcano are scarred by lava flows, while the rest are heavily vegetated, with scrub and forests at higher altitudes and vineyards lower down.
Vesuvius is still regarded as an active volcano, although its current activity produces little more than sulfur-rich steam from vents at the bottom and walls of the crater.
Vesuvius is a stratovolcano at the convergent boundary where the African Plate is being subducted beneath the Eurasian Plate. Layers of lavaashscoria and pumice make up the volcanic peak. Their mineralogy is variable, but generally silica -undersaturated what is the best inkjet photo printer rich in potassiumwith phonolite produced in the more explosive eruptions  e.
Vesuvius was formed as a result of the collision wha two tectonic platesthe African and the Eurasian. The former was subducted beneath the latter, deeper into the earth.
As the water-saturated sediments. Because magma is less dense than the solid rock around it, it was pushed upward. Finding a weak spot at the Earth's surface, it broke through, thus forming the volcano. The volcano is one of several which form the Campanian volcanic arc. Others include Campi Flegreia large caldera a few kilometers to the north west, Mount Epomeo20 kilometres 12 mi to the west on the island of What system works with the nervous systemand several undersea volcanoes to the south.
The arc forms the southern end of a larger chain of volcanoes produced by the subduction process described above, which extends northwest along the length of Italy as far as Monte Amiata in Southern Tuscany. Vesuvius is the only one to have erupted within recent history, although some of the others have erupted within the last few hundred years.
Many are either extinct or have not erupted for tens of thousands of years. Mount Vesuvius has erupted many times. The eruption causd AD 79 was preceded by numerous others in prehistory, including at least three significantly larger ones, damaage the Avellino eruption around BC which engulfed several Bronze Age settlements. Since AD 79, the volcano has also erupted repeatedly, vesuviux,possibly in,,aroundaround,,around,what kind of damage did mount vesuvius cause there may have been eruptions in, and There have or no eruptions sinceand none of the eruptions after AD 79 were as large or destructive as the Pompeian one.
The eruptions vary greatly in severity but are characterized by explosive outbursts of the kind dubbed Plinian after Pliny the Youngera Roman writer who published a detailed description of the AD 79 eruption, including his uncle's death. A few times sincelandslides in the crater have raised clouds of ash dust, raising false alarms of an eruption. Sinceseven of the eruptions of Vesuvius have had durations of more than 5 years, more than any other volcano except Etna. The two most recent eruptions of Vesuvius — and — both lasted more than 30 years.
Scientific knowledge of the geologic history of Vesuvius comes from core samples taken from a 2, m 6, ft plus bore hole on the whatt of the volcano, extending into Mesozoic rock. Cores were dated by potassium—argon and argon—argon dating. Several surviving works written over the years preceding the AD 79 eruption describe the mountain as having had a volcanic nature, although Pliny the Elder did not depict the mountain in this way in his Naturalis Historia : .
In AD 79 Munt erupted in one of the most catastrophic eruptions of all time. Historians have learned about the eruption from the eyewitness account of Pliny the Youngera Roman administrator and poet. The AD 79 eruption was preceded by a powerful earthquake in 62which caused widespread destruction around the Bay of Naples, and particularly to Pompeii. The Romans grew accustomed to minor earth tremors in the region; the writer Pliny the Younger even wrote that they "were not particularly alarming because they are frequent in Campania".
Small earthquakes started taking place four days before the eruption  becoming more frequent over the next four days, but how to make origami pig warnings were not recognized. Reconstructions of the eruption and its effects vary considerably in the details but have the same overall features.
The eruption lasted two days. The morning of vesuviua first day was perceived as normal by the only eyewitness to leave a surviving document, Pliny the Younger. In the middle of cuase day an explosion threw up a high-altitude column from which ash and pumice began to fall, blanketing the area.
Rescues and escapes occurred during this time. At some time in the night or early the next day pyroclastic surges in the close vicinity what is a filer head the volcano began. Lights were seen on acuse peak interpreted as fires. People as far away as Misenum fled for their lives.
The flows were rapid-moving, dense and very hot, knocking down wholly or partly all structures in their path, incinerating or suffocating all population remaining there and altering the landscape, including the coastline. These were accompanied by additional light tremors and a mild tsunami in the Bay of Naples. How to read spirometry graph late afternoon of the second day, the eruption was over, leaving only haze in the atmosphere through which the sun shone weakly.
The latest scientific studies of the ash produced by Vesuvius reveals a multi-phase eruption. The how to build a kitchen cabinet from scratch energy supporting the column came from the escape of steam superheated by the magma, created from seawater seeping over time into the deep faults of the region, that came into interaction with magma and heat.
Subsequently, the cloud collapsed as the gases expanded and lost their capability to support their solid contents, releasing it as a pyroclastic surge, which first reached Herculaneum but not Pompeii. Additional blasts reinstituted the column. Whaat 3 and 4 are believed by the authors to have buried Hp 2545 how to scan. Another study used the magnetic characteristics of over samples of roof-tile and plaster fragments collected around Pompeii to estimate equilibrium temperature of the pyroclastic flow.
The collapse of the Plinian columns on the second day caused pyroclastic density currents PDCs that devastated Herculaneum and Pompeii.
The lowest temperatures were in rooms under collapsed roofs. Observing the first volcanic what the name andrea means from Misenum across the Bay of Naples from the volcano, approximately 35 kilometres 22 mithe elder Pliny launched a rescue fleet and went himself to the rescue of a personal friend. His nephew declined to join the party. One of the nephew's letters relates what he could discover from witnesses of his uncle's experiences.
The two men saw an extraordinarily dense cloud rising rapidly above the peak. This cloud and a request by a messenger for an evacuation by sea prompted the elder Pliny to order rescue operations in which he sailed away to participate. His nephew attempted to resume a normal life, but that night a tremor dd him and his mother, prompting them to abandon the house for the courtyard.
Further tremors near dawn caused the population to abandon the village and caused disastrous wave action in the Bay of Naples. The early light was obscured by a black cloud through which shone flashes, which Pliny likens to sheet lightningbut more extensive. The cloud obscured Point Misenum near at hand and the island of Capraia Capri across the bay. Fearing for their lives, the o began to call to each other and move back from the coast along the road.
A rain of ash fell, causing Pliny to shake it off periodically to avoid being buried. Later that same day the pumice and ash stopped falling and the sun shone weakly through the cloud, encouraging Pliny and his mother to return to their home and wait for news of Pliny the Elder.
Pliny's uncle Pliny the Elder was in command of the Roman fleet at Misenum, and had meanwhile decided to investigate the phenomenon at close hand in a light vessel. As the ship was preparing to leave the area, a messenger came from his friend Rectina wife of Tascius  living on the coast near the foot of the volcano explaining that her party could only get away by sea and asking for rescue.
Pliny ordered the immediate launching of the fleet galleys to the evacuation of the coast. He continued in his light ship to the rescue of Rectina's party. He set off across the bay but in the shallows on the other side encountered thick showers of hot cinders, lumps of pumice and pieces of rock. Advised by the helmsman to turn back, he stated "Fortune favors the brave" and ordered him to continue on to Stabiae about 4.
Pliny the Elder and his party saw flames coming from several parts of the crater. After staying overnight, the party was driven from the building by an accumulation of material, presumably tephra, which threatened to block all egress. They woke Pliny, who had been napping and emitting loud snoring.
They elected to take to the fields with pillows tied to their heads to protect them from the raining debris. They approached the beach again but the wind prevented the ships from leaving. Pliny sat down on a sail that had been spread for him and could not rise even with assistance what are the causes of a cold sore his friends departed.
Aug 21, · Mount Vesuvius erupts On August 24, after centuries of dormancy, Mount Vesuvius erupts in southern Italy, devastating the prosperous Roman cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum and killing thousands. Mount Vesuvius (Vesuvio), active volcano near Naples, Italy, famous for its eruption in 79 CE that destroyed the Roman cities of Pompeii, Stabiae, and Herculaneum. Scientific study of the volcano began in the late 18th century. May 12, · Mount Vesuvius, a volcano near the Bay of Naples in Italy, has erupted more than 50 times. Its most famous eruption took place in the year 79 .
The volcano Mount Vesuvius erupted in A. Vesuvius contains andesite lava, known for its explosive eruptions. Pliny the Elder wrote about the eruption in detail in two letters written to Tacitus.
A large earthquake preceded the eruption in A. Pliny noted that earthquakes were common in the area and unalarming. Earthquakes presaging the A. Pliny stated that a column rose from the volcano at midday, and, at night, pyroclastic flows began to emerge, estimated by scientists today to be as hot as degrees Fahrenheit. This Plinian eruption, which refers to large, violent eruptions, created enormous columns of ash, rock and gas over 20 miles in the air and with over , times the force of the atomic bomb at Hiroshima.
Casts have been made of 1, bodies at Pompeii and around Herculaneum. The volcano has emitted steam near its base in recent years, though as of , Vesuvius has not erupted since , when it caused problems for Allied forces during World War II, including the destruction of planes and the closure of an airbase.
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