?Vitamin K1 vs K2: What’s the Difference?
Vitamin K1 (phytonadione) and vitamin K2 (menaquinone) are available in North America. Vitamin K1 is generally the preferred form of vitamin K because it is less toxic and works faster for certain. Jun 03, · Vitamin K functions as a coenzyme for vitamin K-dependent carboxylase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of proteins involved in hemostasis (blood clotting) and bone metabolism, and other diverse physiological functions [ 3, 5 ].
Get the latest public health information from CDC. Have a question? This is a fact sheet intended for health professionals. For a reader-friendly overview of Vitamin K, see our consumer fact sheet on Vitamin K. These compounds include how to prepare a performance report vitamin K1 and a series of menaquinones vitamin K2 [ 2 ].
Menaquinones have unsaturated isoprenyl side chains what is vitamin k1 used for are designated as MK-4 through MK, based on the length of their side chain [ 12 ]. Phylloquinone is present primarily in green leafy vegetables and is the main dietary form of vitamin K [ 3 ].
Menaquinones, which are predominantly of bacterial origin, are present in modest amounts in various animal-based and fermented foods [ 14 ]. Almost all menaquinones, in particular the long-chain menaquinones, are also produced by bacteria in the human gut [ 56 ]. MK-4 is unique in that it is produced by the body from phylloquinone via a conversion process that does not involve bacterial action [ 7 ]. Vitamin K functions as a coenzyme for vitamin K-dependent carboxylase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of proteins involved in hemostasis blood clotting and bone metabolism, and other diverse physiological functions [ 35 ].
Prothrombin clotting factor II is a vitamin K-dependent protein in plasma that is directly involved in blood clotting. For this reason, individuals who are taking these anticoagulants need to maintain consistent vitamin K intakes. Matrix Gla-protein, a vitamin K-dependent protein present in vascular smooth muscle, bone, and cartilage, is the focus of considerable scientific research because it might help reduce abnormal calcification [ 9 ].
Osteocalcin is another vitamin K-dependent protein that is present in bone and may be involved in bone mineralization or turnover [ 5 ]. Like dietary lipids and other fat-soluble vitamins, ingested vitamin K is incorporated into mixed micelles via the action of bile and pancreatic enzymes, and it is absorbed by enterocytes of the small intestine [ 10 ].
From there, vitamin K is incorporated into chylomicrons, secreted into the lymphatic capillaries, transported to the liver, and repackaged into very low-density lipoproteins [ 210 ]. Vitamin K is present in the liver and other body tissues, including the brain, heart, pancreas, and bone [ 2311 ]. In the circulation, vitamin K is carried mainly in lipoproteins [ 2 ]. Compared to the other fat-soluble vitamins, very small amounts of vitamin K circulate in the blood. Vitamin K is rapidly metabolized and excreted.
This rapid metabolism accounts for vitamin K's relatively low blood levels and tissue stores compared to those of the other fat-soluble vitamins [ 11 ]. Little is known about the absorption and transport of vitamin K produced by gut bacteria, but research indicates that substantial quantities of long-chain menaquinones are present in the large bowel [ 7 ]. Although the amount of vitamin K that the body obtains in this manner is unclear, experts believe that these menaquinones satisfy at least some of the body's requirement for vitamin K [ 67 ].
In most cases, vitamin K status is not routinely assessed, except in individuals who take anticoagulants or have bleeding disorders. The only clinically significant indicator of vitamin K status is prothrombin time the time it takes for blood to clotand ordinary changes in vitamin K intakes have rarely been shown to alter prothrombin time [ 5 ].
In healthy people, fasting concentrations of phylloquinone in plasma have been reported to range from 0. However, it is not clear whether this measure can be used to quantitatively assess vitamin K status.
People with plasma phylloquinone concentrations slightly below the normal range have no clinical indications of vitamin K deficiency, possibly because plasma phylloquinone concentrations do not measure the contribution of menaquinones from the diet and the large bowel [ 12 ].
No data on normal ranges of menaquinones are available [ 2 ]. DRI is the general term for a set of reference values used for planning and assessing nutrient intakes of healthy people. These values, which vary by age and gender, include:. Table 1 lists the current AIs for vitamin K in micrograms mcg. The AIs for infants are based on the calculated mean vitamin K intake of healthy breastfed infants and the assumption that what to serve with shawarma receive prophylactic vitamin K at birth as recommended by American and Canadian pediatric societies [ 3 ].
Food sources of phylloquinone include vegetables, especially green leafy vegetables, vegetable oils, and some fruits. Meat, dairy foods, and eggs contain low levels of phylloquinone but modest amounts of menaquinones [ 4 ]. Natto a traditional Japanese food made from fermented soybeans has high amounts of menaquinones [ 113 ]. Other fermented foods, such as cheese, also contain menaquinones.
However, the forms and amounts of vitamin K in these foods likely vary depending on the bacterial strains used to make the foods and their fermentation conditions [ 14 ]. Animals synthesize MK-4 from menadione a synthetic form of vitamin K that can be used in poultry and swine feed [ 15 ]. Thus, poultry and pork products contain MK-4 if menadione is added to the animal feed [ 1414 ]. The most common sources of vitamin K in the U. Few foods are fortified with vitamin K [ 5 ]; breakfast cereals are not typically fortified with vitamin K, although some meal replacement shakes and bars are.
Data on the bioavailability of different forms of vitamin K from food are very limited [ 1 ]. Phylloquinone in plant foods is tightly bound to chloroplasts, so it is less bioavailable than that from oils or dietary supplements [ 1 ].
Consuming vegetables at the same time as some fat improves phylloquinone absorption from the vegetables, but the amount absorbed is still lower than that from oils. Limited research suggests that long-chain MKs may have higher absorption rates than phylloquinone from green vegetables [ 7 ].
Several food sources of vitamin K are listed in Table 2. All values in this table are for phylloquinone content, except when otherwise indicated, because food composition data for menaquinones are limited [ 1 ].
The U. Food and Drug Administration FDA developed DVs to help consumers compare the nutrient contents of foods and dietary supplements within the context of a total diet. The DV for vitamin K is mcg for adults and children age 4 years and older [ 17 ]. FDA does not require food labels to list vitamin K content unless vitamin K has been added to the food. Department of Agriculture's USDA's FoodData Central [ 16 ] lists the nutrient content of many foods and provides comprehensive lists of foods containing vitamin K phylloquinone arranged by nutrient content and by food nameand of what are typical winter december- march conditions in flint michigan containing vitamin K MK-4 arranged by nutrient content and food name.
Several forms of vitamin K are used in dietary supplements, including vitamin K1 as phylloquinone or phytonadione a synthetic form of vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 as MK-4 or MK-7 [ 18 ]. Few data are available on the relative bioavailability of the various forms of vitamin K supplements. One study found that both phytonadione and MK-7 supplements are well absorbed, but MK-7 has what is an online database longer half-life [ 19 ].
Menadione, which is sometimes called "vitamin K3," is another synthetic form of vitamin K. It was shown to damage hepatic cells in laboratory studies conducted during the s and s, so it is no longer used in dietary supplements or fortified foods [ 3 ]. Most U. In adults aged 20 and older, the average daily vitamin K intake from foods is mcg for women and mcg for men. When both foods and supplements are considered, the average daily vitamin K intake increases to mcg for women and mcg for men.
The significance of these findings is unclear because the AI is only an estimate of need, especially for vitamins like vitamin K that are also synthesized endogenously. Moreover, reports of vitamin K deficiency in adults are very rare [ 37 ]. Finally, food composition databases provide information primarily on phylloquinone; menaquinones—either dietary or from bacterial production in the gut—likely also contribute to vitamin K status [ 1 what does genetic code mean, 67 ].
Vitamin K deficiency is only considered clinically relevant when prothrombin time increases significantly due to a decrease in the prothrombin activity of blood [ 37 ]. Thus, bleeding and hemorrhage are the classic signs of vitamin K deficiency, although these effects occur only in severe cases. Because vitamin K is required for the carboxylation of osteocalcin in bone, vitamin K deficiency could also reduce bone mineralization and contribute to osteoporosis [ 23 ].
Vitamin K deficiency can occur during the first few weeks of infancy due to low placental transfer of phylloquinone, low clotting factor levels, and low vitamin K content of breast milk [ 7 ]. Clinically significant vitamin K deficiency in adults is very rare and is usually limited to people with malabsorption disorders or those taking drugs that interfere with vitamin K metabolism [ 37 ].
In healthy people consuming a varied diet, achieving a vitamin K intake low enough to alter standard clinical measures of blood coagulation is almost impossible [ 3 ]. Vitamin K transport across the placenta is poor, increasing the risk of vitamin K deficiency in newborn babies [ 3 ].
During the first few weeks of life, vitamin K deficiency can cause vitamin K deficiency bleeding VKDBa condition formerly known as "classic hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. People with malabsorption syndromes and other gastrointestinal disorders, such as cystic fibrosis, celiac disease, ulcerative colitis, and short bowel syndrome, might not absorb vitamin K properly [ 3523 ]. Vitamin K status can also be low in patients who have undergone bariatric surgery, although clinical signs may not be present [ 26 ].
These individuals might need monitoring of vitamin K status and, in some cases, vitamin K supplementation. This section focuses on two conditions in which vitamin K might play a role: osteoporosis and coronary heart disease.
Osteoporosis, a disorder characterized by porous and fragile bones, is a serious public health problem that affects more than 10 million U. Consuming adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D, especially throughout childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood, is important to maximize bone mass and reduce what does call is waiting at other party mean risk of osteoporosis [ 27 ].
The effect of vitamin K intakes and status on bone health and osteoporosis has been a focus of scientific research. Vitamin K is a cofactor for the gamma-carboxylation of many proteins, including osteocalcin, one of the main proteins in bone [ 28 ]. Some research indicates that high serum levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin are associated with lower bone mineral density [ 528 ].
Although vitamin K is involved in the carboxylation of osteocalcin, it is unclear whether supplementation with any form of vitamin K reduces the risk of osteoporosis. InCockayne and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized how to start a cooking school business trials that examined the effects of vitamin K supplementation on bone mineral density and bone fracture [ 35 ].
Most of the trials were conducted in Japan and involved postmenopausal women; trial duration ranged from 6 to 36 months. Thirteen trials were included in the systematic review, and 12 showed that supplementation with either phytonadione or MK-4 improved bone mineral density. Seven of the 13 trials also had fracture data that were combined in a meta-analysis. MK-4 supplementation significantly reduced rates of hip fractures, vertebral fractures, and all nonvertebral fractures.
Other randomized clinical trials since the review by Cockayne et al. In one of these studies, postmenopausal women received either 1 mg phylloquinone, 45 mg MK-4, or placebo daily for 12 months [ 38 ]. All participants also received daily supplements containing mg calcium and IU vitamin D3. At the end of the study, participants receiving either phylloquinone or MK-4 had significantly lower levels of undercarboxylated osteocalcin compared to those receiving placebo.
However, there were no significant differences in bone mineral density of the lumbar spine or proximal femur among any of the treatment groups. In Japan and other parts of Asia, a pharmacological dose of MK-4 45 mg is used as a treatment for osteoporosis [ 5 ]. The European Food Safety Authority has approved a health claim for vitamin K, noting that "a cause and effect relationship has been established between the dietary intake of vitamin K and the maintenance of normal bone" [ 39 ].
Vascular calcification is one of the risk factors for coronary heart disease because it reduces aortic and arterial elasticity [ 40 ].
Matrix Gla-protein MGP is a vitamin K-dependent protein that may play a role in the prevention of vascular calcification [ 541 ]. Although the full biological function of MGP is unclear, a hypothesis based on animal data suggests that inadequate vitamin K status leads to undercarboxylated MGP, which could increase vascular calcification and the risk of coronary heart disease. These findings might be particularly relevant for patients with chronic kidney disease because their rates of vascular calcification are much higher than those of the general population [ 9 ].
Apr 15, · Vitamin K plays a key role in helping the blood clot, preventing excessive bleeding. Unlike many other vitamins, vitamin K is not typically used as a . Sep 15, · Vitamin K is well-known for its role in blood clotting. But you may not know that its name actually refers to a group of several vitamins that provide health benefits far beyond helping your blood. Vitamin K1 prevents bleeding through the blood clotting (coagulation) cascade. The most well-known function of Vitamin K1 in animals is as a blood clotting agent in the liver, where it forms blood clotting factors such as prothrombin (II), VII, IX and X. We will look at food sources of .
For healthier teeth , eating more vitamin K is crucial. Unfortunately, the vitamin K group is one of the most important yet misunderstood nutrient groups in medicine today, and many people remain unaware of its benefits. These molecules belong to a chemical family called quinones.
The confusion about Vitamin K starts with the very name itself. People often confuse Vitamin K with potassium. This is because K is the chemical symbol for potassium on the periodic table of elements. Vitamin K is a group of fat-soluble vitamins. Broadly, they direct calcium and allow the blood to clot.
But vitamin K2 has benefits for dental, periodontal, heart , hormonal, kidney, bone and brain health. Of vital importance is that Vitamin K1 and K2 are completely different. Both K1 and K2 are quinones. The difference between them is similar to the difference between monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats.
Vitamin K1 is converted into K2. There appears to be two sites where conversion of K1 to K2 occurs: one in the intestine and another in certain tissues in the body.
In , researchers confirmed that the body turns Vitamin K1 into Vitamin K2 via an intermediary molecule, Vitamin K3, which is made in the intestine from Vitamin K1. However, how much K2 this produces is uncertain. We still have much to learn about the intricacies of Vitamin K2. Phylloquinones Vitamin K1 are called phylloquinones or phytonadiones although phytonadione or phytomenadione are often used to describe synthetic K1 given as a treatment. It has a monounsaturated tail with four carbon groups.
The tails can be of 15 different lengths, which is indicated by the following number. Vitamin K1 prevents bleeding through the blood clotting coagulation cascade. We will look at food sources of Vitamin K1 in detail later, but they include:. In plants, vitamin K1 acts as an activator and may play a role in photosynthesis and cell messengers. There are up to fifteen types of menaquinones eg.
MK-9 Mk , but less is known about these. The reaction is called carboxylation. But, in nature, Vitamin K2 variants have different biological sources and somewhat different actions in the body. Best evidence suggests you need to obtain Vitamin K2 MK-4 from your diet. The two types of vitamin K2 have similar but different roles, which are concerned with the transport of fat-soluble vitamins in the body. Your lipoproteins or blood cholesterols carry all fat-soluble nutrients D, A, and K2 to your tissues, organs and bones.
But how well Vitamin K2 is delivered to each part of the body depends on the variant, as their delivery mode and efficiency varies. MK-4 is the most readily absorbed in the tissue. It seems to be the most potent or quickly used form of Vitamin K2.
After absorption in the intestines, the body positions MK-4s on the outer layers of your blood cholesterols. Vitamin K2 MK-4 is unloaded from blood cholesterols first. It is therefore distributed to the tissues like kidneys, lungs and muscles. Here, it activates matrix-GLA protein to prevent calcium buildup in organs and vessels.
Vitamin K2 MK-4 is also most active in regulating genes that may prevent cancer and as an antioxidant in the brain. Vitamin K2 MK-7 is positioned closer to the center of lipoproteins or blood cholesterols. After MK-4 is cleaved off and used up quickly by the body, MK-7 is then available to be used in one of three ways:. MK-7 is more readily absorbed into bone. Here, it activates osteocalcin and provides skeletal benefits. But for now, it seems clear that a dietary source of MK-4 is preferable in the diet due to its highly absorbable nature.
Despite their similar names, we need to eat both Vitamin K1 and Vitamin K2. Most importantly, Vitamin K2 is far more crucial for dental and overall health. Now I want to hear from you! Do you get enough Vitamin K1 and K2 in your diet? Please leave your questions in the comments below. For more information on Dr.
Take the journey and the day delicious food program for life-changing oral and whole health. Steven Lin is a dentist who focusses on the mouth-body connection. Through ancestral nutrition, the oral and gut microbiome, and epigenetics, his programs aim to prevent chronic dental and systemic disease. His book 'The Dental Diet', will be released on January 18'.
To receive free updates on functional oral health from Dr. Lin, subscribe to his newsletter below. My father is a 51 year old male who has been diagnosed with periodontal disease in July Previous dental history:- My father had not been to the dentist in 30 years as he brushes and flosses regularly and thought that his good dental hygiene would be adequate. He had bleeding gums and was in intermittent pain with his mouth for 6 months and then began experiencing severe pain with no relief before seeing a dentist.
July He had X-Rays and a periodontal chart completed, with up to mm recession in most teeth. Both left and right wisdom teeth were extracted due to the recession. He then had a full deep clean in each quadrant of his month over a four week period. This treatment was completed in late September Following this it was still put to him that his remaining teeth may not be saved.
He then completely changed his diet and lifestyle to facilitate good health, with the goal to save his remaining teeth. His diet included a low carb no sugar approach with intermittent fasting Up to hour. His diet includes plenty of pre-biotics in the form of onion, garlic and asparagus. Other vegies which he grows in his large vegetable garden include capsicums, beans, carrots, cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, zucchini, mushroom, celery, baby spinach.
Fruits include tomato, pumpkin, cucumber, avocado, berries. His diet includes nuts and seeds including almonds, cashews, walnuts, sesame seeds, pepitas, macadamia and pistachios. His protein comes predominately from his farm, which includes free range eggs, grass fed lamb and pork.
Since implementing this way of eating he has lost 20kg in a 6 month period, going from kg to 80kg and is sleeping better, more active, thinking clearer and enjoying life.
He was reassessed at the dentist in mid-December, with the hope that the change in diet and lifestyle may have improved his dental health. The dentist was hoping that at best the recession had stayed the same, but feared it may have furthered. The periodontal chart revealed what was 7mm, 8mm and 9mm recessions had improved to 3mm, 4mm mm recessions. His dentist was more excited than he was. Stating that she had never seen this kind of improvement. This was a great result and he was very happy with the progress.
His pain had improved considerably and gums were no longer bleeding. On New Years Eve , he endured trauma to his leg, resulting in a complete rupture of his hamstrings following a water skiing incident. This resulted in a large 6 x 12 haemotoma. Roughly two weeks following this trauma, he began to experience severe pain in his mouth, particularly upper left jaw which is super sensitive, with swollen gums. He feels that the infection is progressing back to what it was.
This pain has occurred with no other changes to diet and lifestyle. Wondering what your thoughts are on this theory, that the trauma is related to his increase in periodontal pain:- Listening to your podcast with Pete Evans you suggest that K2 is a coagulating vitamin.
Could this be the cause of his exacerbated pain in his mouth? Although he feels that his diet is excellent, I am seeking assistance for his flare-up in pain.
After reading articles on your website he has commenced taking COQ10 and the K2 vitamin with added calcium and vitamin D this week. We would love to know any further suggestions you may have to control his pain and healing periodontal disease. Do you suggest taking K12 and M18 probiotics? If so, what sources of food would have these probiotics? Thanks in advance for your assistance, it is greatly appreciated and we look forward to hearing your thoughts and recommendations. I think your readers will all benefit from your response.
Her case is quite detailed. Thank you. Hello sorry for my english. We have so much information on the internet, that we got really confused. Some say that k2 is also responsible for blood clotting, i found people saying k2 give them blood clots.
My doctor prescribe to me vitamin d3 Also i take lexapro 10 mg for anxiety.