Definition of spectroscopy. 1: the process or technique of using a spectroscope or spectrometer. 2: the production and investigation of spectra. Mar 29, · Spectroscopy, study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter, as related to the dependence of these processes on the wavelength of the radiation. Spectroscopic analysis has been crucial in the development of the most fundamental theories in physics.
One of the most specctroscopy fields for this instrument is undoubtedly stellar spectroscopy. Oscar Brasch has within the last few years studied spectroscopy in relation to the alkaloids and organic poisons. It is to Sir William Huggins, however, that we are indebted for the application of the principle to spectroscopy.
In the earliest days of spectroscopy the spectra of the stars were classified according to their visual spectra. The basis of spectroscopy is the prism, which separates sunlight into seven colors and projects a band of light called a spectrum. The branch of science devoted to refinition the chemical composition of materials by looking at the light and other kinds of electromagnetic radiation they emit.
Scientists use spectroscopy to determine the nature of distant stars and galaxies as well as to identify and monitor the production of products in factories. New Word List Word List. Save This Word! Set some time apart to test your how to split a pdf into pages symbol knowledge, and see if you can keep your parentheses, squares, curlies, and angles all straight! Words nearby spectroscopy spectropolariscopespectroradiometerspectroscopespectroscopic analysisspectroscopic binaryspectroscopyspectrumspectrum analyserspectrum analysisspetcroscopy disorderspecular.
Example sentences from the Web for spectroscopy One of the most fruitful fields for this instrument is undoubtedly stellar spectroscopy. Astronomy of To-day Cecil G. Scientific American Supplement, No. The techniques are widely used in chemical analysis and in studies of the properties of atoms, molecules, ions, etc.
Derived forms of spectroscopy spectroscopistnoun. The study of spectra, especially experimental observation of optical spectra. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. The analysis of spectra, especially light or mass spectra, to determine properties of their source. In astronomy, phenomena such as red shift can also be analyzed. Spectroscopy is also called spectrography.
See also atomic spectrum spectroscope. All rights reserved. Tired of Typos? Get Help Now!
Spectroscopy definition, the science that deals with the use of the spectroscope and with spectrum analysis. See more. Sep 13, · Spectroscopy is the analysis of the interaction between matter and any portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Traditionally, spectroscopy involved the visible spectrum of light, but X-ray, gamma, and UV spectroscopy also are valuable analytical techniques. Aug 10, · Spectroscopy generally is defined as the area of science concerned with the absorption, emission, and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by atoms and molecules, which may be in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. Visible electromagnetic radiation is called light, although the terms light, radiation, and electromagnetic radiation can be used interchangeably.
Spectroscopy , study of the absorption and emission of light and other radiation by matter , as related to the dependence of these processes on the wavelength of the radiation. More recently, the definition has been expanded to include the study of the interactions between particles such as electrons , protons , and ions , as well as their interaction with other particles as a function of their collision energy.
Spectroscopic analysis has been crucial in the development of the most fundamental theories in physics , including quantum mechanics , the special and general theories of relativity , and quantum electrodynamics. Spectroscopy, as applied to high-energy collisions, has been a key tool in developing scientific understanding not only of the electromagnetic force but also of the strong and weak nuclear forces. Spectroscopic techniques have been applied in virtually all technical fields of science and technology.
Radio-frequency spectroscopy of nuclei in a magnetic field has been employed in a medical technique called magnetic resonance imaging MRI to visualize the internal soft tissue of the body with unprecedented resolution. Microwave spectroscopy was used to discover the so-called three-degree blackbody radiation , the remnant of the big bang i.
The internal structure of the proton and neutron and the state of the early universe up to the first thousandth of a second of its existence are being unraveled with spectroscopic techniques using high-energy particle accelerators. The constituents of distant stars , intergalactic molecules , and even the primordial abundance of the elements before the formation of the first stars can be determined by optical, radio, and X-ray spectroscopy. Optical spectroscopy is used routinely to identify the chemical composition of matter and to determine its physical structure.
Spectroscopic techniques are extremely sensitive. Single atoms and even different isotopes of the same atom can be detected among 10 20 or more atoms of a different species. Isotopes are all atoms of an element that have unequal mass but the same atomic number.
Isotopes of the same element are virtually identical chemically. Trace amounts of pollutants or contaminants are often detected most effectively by spectroscopic techniques.
Certain types of microwave, optical, and gamma-ray spectroscopy are capable of measuring infinitesimal frequency shifts in narrow spectroscopic lines. Frequency shifts as small as one part in 10 15 of the frequency being measured can be observed with ultrahigh resolution laser techniques. Because of this sensitivity, the most accurate physical measurements have been frequency measurements. Spectroscopy now covers a sizable fraction of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The table summarizes the electromagnetic spectrum over a frequency range of 16 orders of magnitude. Spectroscopic techniques are not confined to electromagnetic radiation, however. In instances where the probe particle is not a photon, spectroscopy refers to the measurement of how the particle interacts with the test particle or material as a function of the energy of the probe particle.
An example of particle spectroscopy is a surface analysis technique known as electron energy loss spectroscopy EELS that measures the energy lost when low-energy electrons typically 5—10 electron volts collide with a surface.
On the other end of the energy spectrum, if an electron collides with another particle at exceedingly high energies, a wealth of subatomic particles is produced. Most of what is known in particle physics the study of subatomic particles has been gained by analyzing the total particle production or the production of certain particles as a function of the incident energies of electrons and protons.
The following sections focus on the methods of electromagnetic spectroscopy, particularly optical spectroscopy. Although most of the other forms of spectroscopy are not covered in detail, they have the same common heritage as optical spectroscopy. Thus, many of the basic principles used in other spectroscopies share many of the general features of optical spectroscopy. Electromagnetic radiation is composed of oscillating electric and magnetic fields that have the ability to transfer energy through space.
The energy propagates as a wave , such that the crests and troughs of the wave move in vacuum at the speed of ,, metres per second. The many forms of electromagnetic radiation appear different to an observer; light is visible to the human eye , while X rays and radio waves are not.
The distance between successive crests in a wave is called its wavelength. The various forms of electromagnetic radiation differ in wavelength.
Visible light and X rays are often described in units of angstroms or in nanometres. The decomposition of electromagnetic radiation into its component wavelengths is fundamental to spectroscopy. Evolving from the first crude prism spectrographs that separated sunlight into its constituent colours, modern spectrometers have provided ever-increasing wavelength resolution.
The frequency with which the electromagnetic wave oscillates is also used to characterize the radiation. The frequency is often expressed as the number of oscillations per second, and the unit of frequency is hertz Hz , where one hertz is one cycle per second.
Since the electromagnetic spectrum spans many orders of magnitude, frequency units are usually accompanied by a Latin prefix to set the scale of the frequency range. See measurement system: The metric system of measurement: The International System of Units for a table of the prefixes commonly used to denote these scales.
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