Hard and soft science
Uniformitarianism, in geology, the doctrine suggesting that Earth’s geologic processes acted in the same manner and with essentially the same intensity in the past as they do in the present and that such uniformity accounts for all geologic change. It is fundamental to geologic thinking and . Nov 22, · This concept became known as uniformitarianism and can be summarized by the phrase "the present is the key to the past." It was a direct rejection of the prevalent theory of the time, catastrophism, which held that only violent disasters could modify the surface of the earth.
What is the origin what is the concept of uniformitarianism the geologic time scale? T he first people who needed to understand the geological relationships of different rock units were miners. Mining had been of commercial interest since at least the days of the Romans, but it wasn't until the s and s that these efforts produced an interest in local rock relationships. By noting the relationships of different rock units, Nicolaus Steno in described two basic geologic principles.
The first stated that sedimentary rocks are laid down in shat horizontal manner, and the second stated that younger rock units were deposited on top of older rock units. To envision this latter principle think of the layers of paint on a wall.
The oldest layer was put on first and is at the bottom, while the newest layer is at the top. An additional concept was introduced by James Hutton inand later emphasized by Charles Lyell in the early s.
This was the idea that natural geologic processes were uniform in frequency and magnitude throughout time, an idea known as the "principle of uniformitarianism". Steno's principles allowed workers in the s and early s to begin to js rock successions. However, because rocks were locally described by the color, texture, or even smell, comparisons between rock sequences of different areas were often not possible.
Fossils provided the opportunity for workers to correlate between geographically distinct areas. This contribution was possible because fossils concdpt found over wide regions of the earth's crust. For the next major contribution to the geologic time scale we turn to William Smitha surveyor, canal builder, and amateur geologist from England. In Smith produced a geologic map of England in which he successfully demonstrated the validity of the principle of faunal succession.
This principle simply stated that fossils are found in rocks in a very definite order. This principle led others that followed to use fossils to define increments within a relative time scale. What do the divisions of the geologic time scale signify? The history of the earth is broken up into a hierarchical set of divisions for describing geologic time. As unifformitarianism smaller units of time, the generally accepted divisions are eon, era, period, epoch, age.
In the time scale shown at left, only the two highest levels of this hierarchy are represented. The Phanerozoic Eon is shown along the top left side of this figure and represents the time during which the majority of macroscopic organisms, algal, fungal, plant and animallived. When first proposed as a division of geologic time, the beginning of the Phanerozoic lf million years ago was thought to coincide with fhe beginning of life.
In reality, this eon coincides with the appearance of animals that evolved external skeletons, like shells, and the somewhat later animals that formed internal skeletons, such as the bony elements of vertebrates. The time before the Phanerozoic is usually referred to as the Precambrian, and exactly what qualifies as an "eon" or "era" varies somewhat depending on whom you talk to.
This is an overly simplified view, which has some value for the newcomer how to apply diff file can be a bit misleading. For instance, other groups of animals lived during the Mesozoic. In addition to the dinosaurs, animals such as mammals, turtles, crocodiles, frogs, and countless varieties of insects also lived on land. Additionally, there were many kinds of plants living in the past that no longer live today.
Ancient floras went through great changes too, and not always at the same times that the animal groups changed. As you explore exhibits in tthe Geology Wing, you can often find out more about how to stop your period ibuprofen the about divisions of the time scale were defined and named by clicking on the "Stratigraphy" button.
For a good example, go to the Cenozoic Era stratigraphy page. Further reading on this topic: Berry, W. Growth of a prehistoric time scale: based on organic evolution. Visit the excellent set of on-line course notes for Pamela J. Gore's Historical Geology class.
Lord Kelvin’s contributions
The concept of genus and species was actually developed in the late 's by John Ray, an English naturalist and ordained odishahaalchaal.comr, it was Linnaeus who used this system to name us Homo sapiens (literally, "wise men"). He also placed us in the order Primates (a larger, more inclusive category than our genus) along with all of the apes, monkeys, and prosimians. May 25, · Theories of Geological Evolution: Catastrophism vs Uniformitarianism Methods of Geological Dating: Numerical and Relative Dating Synchronicity (German: Synchronizitat) is a concept first introduced by analytical psychologist Carl G. Jung "to describe circumstances that appear meaningfully related yet lack a causal connection." Jung held that to ascribe meaning to certain acausal coincidences can be a healthy, even necessary, function of the human mind—principally, by way of bringing important material of the.
This impact pamphlet was written by a scientist, and a science educator, and reviewed by an attorney, to provide a brief summary of the scientific evidence supporting creation.
The text materials and references listed at the end together give a more thorough discussion of this scientific evidence. Public schools in many localities are teaching two scientific models - the creation model and the evolution model of the origin of the universe, of life, and of man. There is apparent scientific evidence for creation, which is summarized in this pamphlet, just as there is apparent scientific evidence for evolution.
The purpose of this pamphlet is to summarize the evidence that shows that:. This scientific evidence for both models can be taught in public schools without any mention of religious doctrine, whether the Bible or the Humanist Manifesto. There are text materials and teacher handbooks that have been prepared for a fair presentation of both models, creation and evolution. There are also seminars and audiovisuals for training teachers to offer both models of origins. The scientific model of creation, in summary, includes the scientific evidence for a sudden creation of complex and diversified kinds of life, with systematic gaps persisting between different kinds and with genetic variation occurring within each kind since that time.
The scientific model of evolution, in summary, includes the scientific evidence for a gradual emergence of present life kinds over aeons of time, with emergence of complex and diversified kinds of life from simpler kinds and ultimately from nonliving matter. The creation model questions vertical evolution, which is the emergence of complex from simple and change between kinds, but it does not challenge what is often called horizontal evolution or microevolution, which creationists call genetic variation or species or subspecies formation within created kinds.
The following chart lists seven aspects of the scientific model of creation and of the scientific model of evolution:. The First Law of Thermodynamics states that the total quantity of matter and energy in the universe is constant. The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that matter and energy always tend to change from complex and ordered states to disordered states. Therefore the universe could not have created itself, but could not have existed forever, or it would have run down long ago.
Thus the universe, including matter and energy, apparently must have been created. The "big-bang" theory of the origin of the universe contradicts much physical evidence and seemingly can only be accepted by faith. The universe has "obvious manifestations of an ordered, structured plan or design.
Life appears abruptly and in complex forms in the fossil record, 2 and gaps appear systematically in the fossil record between various living kinds.
The Second Law of Thermodynamics states that things tend to go from order to disorder entropy tends to increase unless added energy is directed by a conversion mechanism such as photosynthesis , whether a system is open or closed.
Thus simple molecules and complex protein, DNA, and RNA molecules seemingly could not have evolved spontaneously and naturalistically into a living cell; 4 such cells apparently were created.
The laboratory experiments related to theories on the origin of life have not even remotely approached the synthesis of life from nonlife, and the extremely limited results have depended on laboratory conditions that are artificially imposed and extremely improbable.
Systematic gaps occur between kinds in the fossil record. The few suggested links such as Archoeopteryx and the horse series have been rendered questionable by more detailed data. Fossils and living organisms are readily subjected to the same criteria of classification. Thus present kinds of animals and plants apparently were created, as shown by the systematic fossil gaps and by the similarity of fossil forms to living forms.
A kind may be defined as a generally interfertile group of organisms that possesses variant genes for a common set of traits but that does not interbreed with other groups of organisms under normal circumstances. Any evolutionary change between kinds necessary for the emergence of complex from simple organisms would require addition of entirely new traits to the common set and enormous expansion of the gene pool over time, and could not occur from mere ecologically adaptive variations of a given trait set which the creation model recognizes.
The mathematical probability that random mutation and natural selection ultimately produced complex living kinds from a simpler kind is infinitesimally small even after many billions of years. Mutations are always harmful or at least nearly always harmful in an organism's natural environment.
Natural selection is a tautologous concept circular reasoning , because it simply requires the fittest organisms to leave the most offspring and at the same time it identifies the fittest organisms as those that leave the most offspring. Thus natural selection seemingly does not provide a testable explanation of how mutations would produce more fit organisms.
Although highly imaginative "transitional forms" between man and ape-like creatures have been constructed by evolutionists based on very fragmentary evidence, the fossil record actually documents the separate origin of primates in general, 11 monkeys, 12 apes, 13 and men.
In fact, Lord Zuckerman not a creationist states that there are no "fossil traces" of a transformation from an ape-like creature to man. Catastrophic events have characterized the earth's history. Huge floods, massive asteroid collisions, large volcanic eruptions, devastating landslides, and intense earthquakes have left their marks on the earth.
Catastrophic events appear to explain the formation of mountain ranges, deposition of thick sequences of sedimentary rocks with fossils, initiation of the glacial age, and extinction of dinosaurs and other animals.
Catastrophism catastrophic changes , rather than uniformitarianism gradual changes , appears to be the best interpretation of a major portion of the earth's geology. Geologic data reflect catastrophic flooding. Evidences of rapid catastrophic water deposition include fossilized tree trunks that penetrate numerous sedimentary layers such as at Joggins, Nova Scotia , widespread pebble and boulder layers such as the Shinarump Conglomerate of the southwestern United States , fossilized logs in a single layer covering extensive areas such as Petrified Forest National Park , and whole closed clams that were buried alive in mass graveyards in extensive sedimentary layers such as at Glen Rose, Texas.
Uniform processes such as normal river sedimentation, small volcanoes, slow erosion, and small earthquakes appear insufficient to explain large portions of the geologic record.
Even the conventional uniformitarian geologists are beginning to yield to evidences of rapid and catastrophic processes. Radiometric dating methods such as the uranium-lead and potassium-argon methods depend on three assumptions: a that no decay product lead or argon was present initially or that the initial quantities can be accurately estimated, b that the decay system was closed through the years so that radioactive material or product did not move in or out of the rock , and c that the decay rate was constant over time.
Thus ages estimated by the radiometric dating methods may very well be grossly in error. Alternate dating methods suggest much younger ages for the earth and life.
Estimating by the rate of addition of helium to the atmosphere from radioactive decay, the age of the earth appears to be about 10, years, even allowing for moderate helium escape.
Based on the present rate of the earth's cooling, the time required for the earth to have reached its present thermal structure seems to be only several tens of millions of years, even assuming that the earth was initially molten. Gish earned his Ph. Gish collaborated with one Nobel Prize recipient in elucidating the chemical structure of the protein of tobacco mosaic virus, and with another Nobel Prize winner in synthesis of one of the hormones of the pituitary gland.
Henry M. Morris, PhD. Kenneth B. Cumming Ph. Gary E. Parker Ph. Biology; Dr. Theodore W. Rybka Ph. Harold S. Slusher M. Bliss earned his Ed. He wrote his dissertation on teaching the two-model approach comparing evolution-science and creation-science in public schools. He taught high-school physics, chemistry, and biology for many years and was the Director of Science Education for the large public school district in Racine, Wisconsin.
He served as the science consultant for Educational Consulting Associates and for several major publishers of science textbooks, as well as for the University of Wisconsin Research and Development film series.
He has written textbook materials for public school instruction in the creation model and the evolution noodel. Bird earned his J. Cite this article: Duane Gish, Ph. Skip to main content. Introduction Public schools in many localities are teaching two scientific models - the creation model and the evolution model of the origin of the universe, of life, and of man.
The purpose of this pamphlet is to summarize the evidence that shows that: "The creation model is at least as scientific as the evolution model, and is at least as nonreligious as the evolution model.
The following chart lists seven aspects of the scientific model of creation and of the scientific model of evolution: The creation model includes the scientific evidence and the related inferences suggesting that: The evolution model includes the scientific evidence and the related inferences suggesting that: I. The universe and the Solar system were suddenly created.
The universe and the solar system emerged by naturalistic processes. Life was suddenly created. Life emerged from nonlife by naturalistic processes. All present living kinds of animals and plants have remained fixed since creation, other than extinctions, and genetic variation in originally created kinds has only occurred within narrow limits. All present kinds emerged from simpler earlier kinds, so that single-celled organisms evolved into invertebrates, then vertebrates, then amphibians, then reptiles, then mammals, then primates, including man.
Mutation and natural selection are insufficient to have brought about any emergence of present living kinds from a simple primordial organism. Mutation and natural selection have brought about the emergence of present complex kinds from a simple primordial organism. Man and apes have a separate ancestry.
Man and apes emerged from a common ancestor. The earth's geologic features appear to have been fashioned largely by rapid, catastrophic processes that affected the earth on a global and regional scale catastrophism. The earth's geologic features were fashioned largely by slow, gradual processes, with infrequent catastrophic events restricted to a local scale uniformitarianism. The inception of the earth and of living kinds may have been relatively recent.
The inception of the earth and then of life must have occurred several billion years ago. Life Was Suddenly Created. The most rational inference from this evidence seemingly is that life was created and did not evolve. Man and Apes Have a Separate Ancestry. Slusher, Harold S. Note 6 infra. Gish, Duane T.
For examples of the lack of transitional fossils, Ommaney, F. Science , V. Press, , p, It is our contention that if 'random' is given a serious and crucial interpretation from a probabilisticpoint of view, the randomness postulate is highly implausible and that an adequate scientific theory of evolution must await the discovery and elucidation of new natural laws Lippincott, India," Journal of Sedimentary Petrology.
As a result, catastrophic events, e. Of late, however, there has been a welcome rejuvenation of [the] concept of catastrophism in geologic thought. Harlan Bretz recently stated, on receiving the Penrose Medal the highest geology award in America , "Perhaps, I can be credited with reviving and demystifying legendary Catastrophism and challenging a too rigorous Uniformitarianism.