Brazzaville : The Capital City Of Republic Of Congo
Socialism Today - Congo: a history of capitalist looting. Oct 15, · Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is located directly opposite Brazzaville on the southern banks of the Congo River. The city experiences a Author: Oishimaya Sen Nag.
The Republic of the Congo is a nation in Central Africa. The country covers an area ofsquare km and has a population of approximately 5, It also has coastline on the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The Republic of the Congo is governed as a unitary semi-presidential republic. The country's executive powers are held by the President and the Prime Minister, who serve as the head of state and the head of government, respectively.
The legislative branch consists of the Parliament, which is made up of two chambers, what is the monthly payment for a 20000 car National Assembly and the Senate. The country has one dominant party, and while other parties can exist they have little chance of coming to power. It covers an area of Brazzaville is the Republic of the Congo's most populous city and has a population density of 5, persons per square km.
Brazzaville is located km from the Atlantic Ocean on the northern side of the Congo River, close to the Pool Malebo which is a lake-like part of the Congo River. The city is relatively flat, has an elevation of 1, feet, and is surrounded by large plains. Kinshasa, the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is located directly opposite Brazzaville on the southern banks of the Congo River.
The city experiences a tropical wet and dry climate. Brazzaville was founded as a French colony in the late 19th century by Italian-born explorer Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza. Founded on the site of an indigenous Bateke settlement, the new colony was named after Brazza. The king of the Bateke people signed a treaty with the French Empire, offering protection in exchange for control of the region.
The city grew in the early 20th century, and numerous municipal buildings, courts, and offices were built during this period. Additionally, the construction of a railway connecting the city to the port of Pointe-Noire further boosted its importance. In the years that followed, Brazzaville served as the site of various protests, rebellions, and civil wars.
When the Republic of the Congo gained independence from colonial rule inBrazzaville became the capital of the newly how to do the planche push up state. As the seat of the national government, Brazzaville is home to important government offices, departments, and ministries.
The Republic of the Congo's Parliament also meets in the city. Brazzaville is an important industrial, commercial, and financial center. Brazzaville, the capital of the Republic of the Congo.
Olympic Games History. Southeast Asian Countries. Commonwealth Of Independent States.
History of Kinshasa
Brazzaville - the capital of the Congo. Congo capital, Brazzaville, was onceonly a small settlement called Ntamo. Status of the city, he was only in the s. The founder of a French explorer Savorgnan de Brazza and gave the future capital of their name. Modern Brazzaville - boomingthe city having a typical "European" face, but lives by the rules of Africa. The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) (pronunciation (help · info) French: Republique democratique du Congo (RDC)), also known as Congo-Kinshasa, DR Congo (French: RD Congo), the DROC, or simply either Congo or the Congo, and historically Zaire, is a country in Central odishahaalchaal.com is, by area, the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa, the second-largest in all of Africa (after Algeria Calling code: + Mar 21, · The capital city of Republic of Congo is Brazzaville and it is the main city of the country. It is located on the banks of the Congo River, on the African continent. Approximately one third of the population of the Republic of the Congo lives in the capital with a total of 1,, inhabitants.
It is, by area, the largest country in sub-Saharan Africa , the second-largest in all of Africa after Algeria , and the 11th-largest in the world. With a population of around million, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most-populous officially Francophone country in the world, as well as the 4th-most populous country in Africa after Nigeria , Ethiopia , and Egypt and the 15th-most populous country in the world. Centered on the Congo Basin , the territory of the DRC was first inhabited by Central African foragers around 90, years ago and was reached by the Bantu expansion about 3, years ago.
In the west, the Kingdom of Kongo ruled around the mouth of the Congo River from the 14th to 19th centuries. In the northeast, center and east, the kingdoms of Azande , Luba and Lunda ruled from the 16th and 17th centuries to the 19th century. Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Berlin Conference in and declared the land his private property, naming it the Congo Free State.
During the Free State, his colonial military unit, the Force Publique , forced the local population to produce rubber. From to , millions of Congolese people died as a consequence of disease and exploitation.
In , Leopold, despite his initial reluctance, ceded the so-called Free State to Belgium , thus it became known as the Belgian Congo. Congo achieved independence from Belgium on 30 June under the name Republic of the Congo.
Conflict arose over the administration of the territory, which became known as the Congo Crisis. After the UN and Western governments refused his requests for aid and Lumumba stated that he was open to any country, including the Soviet Union , for assistance in the crisis, the US and Belgium became wary and oversaw his removal from office by Kasa-Vubu on 5 September and ultimate execution by Belgian-led Katangese troops on 17 January In , he renamed the country Zaire.
The country was run as a dictatorial one-party state , with his Popular Movement of the Revolution as the sole legal party. Mobutu's government received considerable support from the United States, due to its anti-communist stance during the Cold War.
By the early s, Mobutu's government began to weaken. Destabilisation in the east resulting from the Rwandan genocide and disenfranchisement among the eastern Banyamulenge Congolese Rwandans of the Tutsi tribe population led to a invasion led by Tutsi FPR -ruled Rwanda, which began the First Congo War.
Ultimately, nine African countries and around twenty armed groups became involved in the war,  which resulted in the deaths of 5. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is extremely rich in natural resources but has suffered from political instability , a lack of infrastructure, corruption, and centuries of both commercial and colonial extraction and exploitation with little widespread development.
Besides the capital Kinshasa , the two next largest cities, Lubumbashi and Mbuji-Mayi are both mining communities. The Democratic Republic of the Congo is named after the Congo River , which flows throughout the country. The Congo River is the world's deepest river and the world's second-largest river by discharge. The Congo River itself was named by early European sailors after the Kingdom of Kongo and its Bantu inhabitants, the Kongo people , when they encountered them in the 16th century.
According to American writer Samuel Henry Nelson: "It is probable that the word 'Kongo' itself implies a public gathering and that it is based on the root konga , 'to gather' trans[itive]. The word Zaire is from a Portuguese adaptation of a Kikongo word nzere "river" , a truncation of nzadi o nzere "river swallowing rivers". In , the Sovereign National Conference voted to change the name of the country to the "Democratic Republic of the Congo", but the change was not made.
The geographical area now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo was populated as early as 90, years ago, as shown by the discovery of the Semliki harpoon at Katanda , one of the oldest barbed harpoons ever found, believed to have been used to catch giant river catfish. Bantu peoples reached Central Africa at some point during the first millennium BC, then gradually started to expand southward.
Their propagation was accelerated by the adoption of pastoralism and of Iron Age techniques. The people living in the south and southwest were foraging groups, whose technology involved only minimal use of metal technologies.
The development of metal tools during this time period revolutionized agriculture. This led to the displacement of the hunter-gatherer groups in the east and southeast. The final wave of the Bantu expansion was complete by the 10th century, followed by the establishment of the Bantu kingdoms, whose rising populations soon made possible intricate local, regional and foreign commercial networks that traded mostly in slaves, salt, iron and copper. Belgian exploration and administration took place from the s until the s.
The eastern regions of the precolonial Congo were heavily disrupted by constant slave raiding , mainly from Arab—Swahili slave traders such as the infamous Tippu Tip , who was well known to Stanley. Leopold had designs on what was to become the Congo as a colony.
Leopold formally acquired rights to the Congo territory at the Conference of Berlin in and made the land his private property. He named it the Congo Free State. Nearly all such infrastructure projects were aimed at making it easier to increase the assets which Leopold and his associates could extract from the colony.
In the Free State, colonists coerced the local population into producing rubber , for which the spread of automobiles and development of rubber tires created a growing international market. Rubber sales made a fortune for Leopold, who built several buildings in Brussels and Ostend to honor himself and his country.
To enforce the rubber quotas, the army, the Force Publique , was called in and made the practice of cutting off the limbs of the natives a matter of policy. During the period of —, millions of Congolese died as a consequence of exploitation and disease. In some areas the population declined dramatically — it has been estimated that sleeping sickness and smallpox killed nearly half the population in the areas surrounding the lower Congo River. News of the abuses began to circulate.
In , the British consul at Boma in the Congo, Roger Casement was instructed by the British government to investigate. His report, called the Casement Report , confirmed the accusations of humanitarian abuses. Its findings confirmed Casement's report of abuses, concluding that the population of the Congo had been "reduced by half" during this period.
In , the Belgian parliament , in spite of initial reluctance, bowed to international pressure especially from the United Kingdom and took over the Free State from King Leopold II. On 18 October , the Belgian parliament voted in favour of annexing the Congo as a Belgian colony. Executive power went to the Belgian minister of colonial affairs , assisted by a Colonial Council Conseil Colonial both located in Brussels.
The Belgian parliament exercised legislative authority over the Belgian Congo. The transition from the Congo Free State to the Belgian Congo was a break but it also featured a large degree of continuity.
Indigenous courts had only limited powers and remained under the firm control of the colonial administration. Records show that in , Belgian administrators ran the colony. The Belgian population of the colony increased from 1, in to nearly 89, in The Belgian Congo was directly involved in the two world wars.
The Force Publique gained a notable victory when it marched into Tabora in September under the command of General Charles Tombeur after heavy fighting. After , Belgium was rewarded for the participation of the Force Publique in the East African campaign with a League of Nations mandate over the previously German colony of Ruanda-Urundi. Lumumba declared Kasavubu's action unconstitutional and a crisis between the two leaders developed. Events set in motion by the U.
On 17 January , he was handed over to Katangan authorities and executed by Belgian-led Katangese troops. The secession ended in January with the assistance of UN forces. With financial support from the United States and Belgium, Mobutu paid his soldiers privately.
The new president had the staunch support of the United States because of his opposition to Communism; the US believed that his administration would serve as an effective counter to communist movements in Africa. He periodically held elections in which he was the only candidate. Although relative peace and stability were achieved, Mobutu's government was guilty of severe human rights violations , political repression , a cult of personality and corruption. By late Mobutu had successfully neutralized his political opponents and rivals, either through co-opting them into his regime, arresting them, or rendering them otherwise politically impotent.
Kasa-Vubu's death in April ensured that no person with First Republic credentials could challenge his rule. He traveled frequently across the continent while the government became more vocal about African issues, particularly those relating to the southern region. Zaire established semi-clientelist relationships with several smaller African states, especially Burundi, Chad, and Togo. Corruption became so common the term " le mal Zairois " or "Zairian Sickness",  meaning gross corruption, theft and mismanagement, was coined, reportedly by Mobutu himself.
Zaire became a kleptocracy as Mobutu and his associates embezzled government funds. This renaming campaign was completed in the s. In , Mobutu renamed the country the Republic of Zaire ,  its fourth name change in eleven years and its sixth overall. The Congo River was renamed the Zaire River. During the s and s, he was invited to visit the United States on several occasions, meeting with U.
Opponents within Zaire stepped up demands for reform. This atmosphere contributed to Mobutu's declaring the Third Republic in , whose constitution was supposed to pave the way for democratic reform. The reforms turned out to be largely cosmetic. Mobutu continued in power until armed forces forced him to flee in By , following the Rwandan Civil War and genocide and the ascension of a Tutsi -led government in Rwanda, Rwandan Hutu militia forces Interahamwe fled to eastern Zaire and used refugee camps as a base for incursions against Rwanda.
A coalition of Rwandan and Ugandan armies invaded Zaire to overthrow the government of Mobutu, and ultimately to control the mineral resources of Zaire, [ citation needed ] launching the First Congo War. In Mobutu fled and Kabila marched into Kinshasa, named himself president, and reverted the name of the country to the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Kabila later requested that foreign military forces return to their own countries. He had concerns that the Rwandan officers running his army were plotting to give the presidency to a Tutsi who would report directly to Rwanda n president, Paul Kagame. Angolan, Zimbabwean, and Namibian militaries entered the hostilities on the side of the government.
Kabila was assassinated in His son Joseph Kabila succeeded him and called for multilateral peace talks. By June all foreign armies except those of Rwanda had pulled out of Congo.
A transitional government was set up until after the election. A constitution was approved by voters, and on 30 July DRC held its first multi-party elections. An election-result dispute between Kabila and Jean-Pierre Bemba turned into an all-out battle between their supporters in the streets of Kinshasa. MONUC took control of the city. A new election took place in October , which Kabila won, and in December he was sworn in as President.
They were believed [ by whom? The CNDP signed a peace treaty with the government in which it agreed to become a political party and to have its soldiers integrated into the national army in exchange for the release of its imprisoned members.
In the resulting M23 rebellion , M23 briefly captured the provincial capital of Goma in November In , The New York Times reported that people in the Congo continued to die at a rate of an estimated 45, per month  — estimates of the number who have died from the long conflict range from , to 5,,