Papyrus: A Brief History
May 10, · The oldest examples of papyrus are believed to have originated between 15BC and were discovered in Egypt along the shores of the Red Sea in 20AD. The term papyrus may also refer to a type of scroll made up of sheets of papyrus that have been rolled together from either side to meet in the odishahaalchaal.com: Amber Pariona. Paper made from papyrus was the chief writing material in ancient Egypt, was adopted by the Greeks, and was used extensively in the Roman Empire. It was used not only for the production of books (in roll or scroll form) but also for correspondence and legal documents. Pliny the Elder gave an account of the manufacture of paper from papyrus.
Papyrus paper was made by taking multiple stems from the Cyperus papyrus plant, a grasslike aquatic species with woody triangular stems that grew commonly down the banks of the Nile delta region in Egypt. The fibrous stem layers within are extracted and sliced into thin strips.
These strips are laid out in rows topped with another layer of strips arranged at right angles. The layers are then dampened and pressed together into a sheet.
Finally, the dried sheet of stems is hammered and pasted together with others to form a roll of paper ready for writing, drawing or even painting. It was the ancient Egyptians from the third millennium BC who caused the proliferation of papyrus, due to the sheer how to cook loin of pork in the oven of the plant available to them.
However, the technique soon spread throughout the Mediterranean and was used commonly by the Greeks. Indeed, many ancient documents emanating from the area are all written on papyrus and examples of its use have been recorded as late as the 12th Century from the Byzantine Empire.
While papyrus in hot climates provided a cheap, stable and largely deteriation-proof writing surface, that was easier to transport over long distances than tablets or animal skins, its tendency to mould in damp conditions and crack if bent led its use to be restricted. Papyrus was eventually replaced by parchment and vellum, which offered greater durability and a smoother writing surface.
Cyperus papyrus is a long stemmed plant that grows in damp regions of the Nile Delta in Egypt. Ancient Egyptians discovered how to make paper from the stems of plant as early as B.C. Egyptian papyrus was used as we use paper today. Mar 28, · Papyrus (/p??pa?r?s/ p?-PYE-r?s) is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface. It was made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge. Click to see full answer Subsequently, one may also ask, was papyrus The first paper? Papyrus paper was made by taking multiple stems from the Cyperus papyrus plant, a grasslike aquatic species with woody triangular stems that grew commonly down the banks of the Nile delta region in Egypt. The fibrous stem layers within are extracted and sliced into thin strips.
Papyrus is a crude form of paper which is made with the stalks of the papyrus plant, a reed native to the Mediterranean region.
Papyrus was developed by the Ancient Egyptians, who allowed the technique to spread to other regions of the Mediterranean, setting the stage for the development of other flexible writing materials like vellum , and eventually modern paper. Thanks to Egypt's unique climate, it is possible to find ancient papyrus which can be used to learn more about Egyptian culture.
Prior to the development of paper, written records were kept on clay, wax, or stone tablets. These tablets would have been cumbersome to use and transport, and they also took up a great deal of space. When papyrus was developed, the Egyptians revolutionized recordkeeping and the accessibility of the written word, making it possible to keep extensive records on a wide variety of topics.
Being able to examine these records has been a great book for archaeologists, who have used papyri to learn about Egyptian art, commerce, religious beliefs, and other aspects of Egyptian culture.
To make papyrus, the stalks of the reeds are macerated in water and then beaten to split the reeds. After being beaten, the reeds are overlaid over each other in two layers which run at right angles to each other, and then pressed and dried. As the papyrus dries, the layers pull together, creating a fairly strong, durable paper which was traditionally polished with stones to make the surface easier to write on.
The Egyptians stored their papyrus in the form of scrolls, attaching pieces of the paper for especially long documents.
In the extremely arid, hot climate of Egypt, these scrolls have been astoundingly well preserved, with numerous extant examples being uncovered by historians. Unfortunately, in more humid climates, papyrus starts to rot and fall apart, and untold numbers of papyri were destroyed when scrolls were moved to Europe; numerous others were destroyed when papyrus was burned in the fireboxes of steam trains by English colonists in the 19th century.
Today, collections of papyri are stored in carefully climate-controlled spaces to reduce the risk of damage. For people familiar with modern paper, the coarse texture of papyrus would take some getting used two. Several companies make authentic papyrus, mainly as a novelty, and a few integrate papyrus fibers into their paper for a taste of the exotic without the inconvenience of true papyrus.
Ever since she began contributing to the site several years ago, Mary has embraced the exciting challenge of being a wiseGEEK researcher and writer. Mary has a liberal arts degree from Goddard College and spends her free time reading, cooking, and exploring the great outdoors. Please enter the following code:. Login: Forgot password?