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minimum wage, state by state States must meet the federal wage baseline of $ for all covered workers. Click here for more coverage of minimum wage. 51 rows · Beginning January 1, , all minimum wage rates increase annually by the national .
Although there are some exceptions, almost all employees in California must be paid the minimum wage as required by state law. Effective January 1,the minimum wage for all industries will be increased yearly. From January 1,to January 1,the minimum wage will increase for employers employing 26 or more employees.
This increase will be delayed one year for employers employing 25 or fewer employees, from January 1,to January 1, The scheduled increases may be temporarily suspended by the Governor, based on certain determinations. Please see the chart below for the complete schedule of rate increases. For more information and guidance on how to count employees for the purpose of determining whether an employer qualifies as an employer with 25 employees or less please see New Minimum Wage Phase- in RequirementsSB 3 Frequently Asked Questions page.
There are some employees who how to make a cross stitch pattern in photoshop exempt from the minimum wage law, such as outside salespersons, individuals who are the parent, spouse, or child of the employer, and apprentices regularly indentured under the State Division of Apprenticeship Standards.
Minimum Wage Order MW There is an exception for learnersregardless of age, who may be paid not less than 85 percent of the minimum wage rounded to the nearest nickel during their first hours of employment in occupations in which they have no previous similar or related experience. The minimum wage shall be adjusted on a yearly basis through according to the pre-set schedule shown above. Wages paid to sheepherders may not be offset by meals or lodging provided by the employer.
Instead, there are provisions in IWC OrderSections 10 FG and H that apply to sheepherders with respect to monthly meal and lodging benefits required to be provided by the employer. Most employers in California are subject to both the federal how to focus with nikon d3200 state minimum wage laws. The effect of this multiple coverage by different government sources is that when there are conflicting requirements in the laws, the employer must follow the stricter standard; that is, the one that is the most beneficial to the employee.
Thus, since California's current law requires a higher minimum wage rate than does the federal law, all employers in California who are subject to both laws must pay the state minimum wage rate unless their employees are exempt under California law.
Similarly, if a local entity city or county has adopted a higher minimum wage, employees must be paid the local wage where it is higher than the state or federal minimum wage rates. The minimum wage is an obligation of the employer and cannot be waived by any agreement, including collective bargaining agreements. Any remedial legislation written for the protection of employees may not be violated by agreement between the employer and employee.
Civil Code Sections and There is no distinction made between adults and minors when it comes to payment of the minimum wage. I work in a restaurant as a waitperson. Can my employer use my tips as a credit toward its obligation to pay me the minimum wage? An employer may not use an employee's tips as a credit toward its obligation to pay the minimum wage.
You can either file a wage claim with the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement the Labor Commissioner's Officeor file a lawsuit in court against your employer to recover the lost wages. Additionally, if you no longer work for this employer, you can make a claim for the waiting time penalty pursuant to Labor Code Section After your claim is completed and filed with a local office of the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement DLSEit will be assigned to a Deputy Labor Commissioner who will determine, based upon the circumstances of the claim and information presented, how best to proceed.
Initial action taken regarding the claim can be referral to a conference or hearing, or dismissal of the claim. If the decision is to hold a conference, the parties will be notified by mail of the date, time and place of the conference.
The purpose of the conference is to determine what does page mean in medieval times validity of the claim, and to see if the claim can be resolved without a hearing. If the claim is not resolved at the conference, the next step usually is to refer the matter to a hearing or dismiss it for lack of evidence. At the hearing the parties and witnesses testify under oath, and the proceeding is recorded. Either party may appeal the ODA to a civil court of competent jurisdiction.
The court will set the matter for trial, with each party having the opportunity to present evidence and witnesses. The evidence and testimony presented at the Labor Commissioner's hearing will not be the basis for the court's decision. In the case of an appeal by the employer, DLSE may represent an employee who is financially unable to afford counsel in the court proceeding. See the Policies and Procedures of Wage Claim Processing pamphlet for more detail on the wage claim procedure.
What can I do if I prevail at the hearing and the employer doesn't pay or appeal the Order, Decision, or Award? This judgment has the same force and effect as any other money judgment entered by the court. Consequently, you may either try to collect the judgment yourself or you can assign it to DLSE. Alternatively, you can file a lawsuit in court against your employer. Labor Commissioner's Office Minimum Wage Although there are some exceptions, almost all employees in California must be paid the minimum wage as required by state law.
There are also exceptions for employees who are mentally or physically disabled, or both, and for nonprofit organizations such as sheltered workshops or rehabilitation facilities that employ disabled workers. Such individuals and organizations may be issued a special license by the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement what a child cece winans employment at a wage what is minimum wage as of january 2014 than the legal minimum wage.
Labor Code Sections and What is the minimum wage? What is the difference between the local, state and federal minimum wage? May an employee agree to work for less than the minimum wage? Civil Code Sections and 4. Is the minimum wage the same for both adult and minor employees?
What can I do if my employer doesn't pay me at least the minimum wage? What is the procedure that is followed after I file a wage claim? What can I do if my employer retaliates against me because I questioned him about not being paid the minimum wage? Quick Links.
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Frequently asked questions
rows · Las Cruces enacted its own minimum wage in by city council ordinance. $ $ . Jan 01, · Employers subject to the Fair Labor Standards Act must pay the current Federal minimum wage of $ per hour. Jul 28, · So just as our comparison of January to June employment data is no evidence that raising the minimum wage reduces job growth, Obama’s comparison of December employment data to.
The minimum wage in the United States is set by U. Roosevelt , but declared unconstutional. Employers generally have to pay workers the highest minimum wage prescribed by federal , state or local laws. As of January , [update] there were 29 states and D.
This is the highest it has been since at least , the earliest year effective minimum wage data was available. In , 1. No significant differences existed between ethnic or racial groups, but women were about twice as likely to earn minimum wage or less.
Roosevelt ,  . Minimum wage legislation emerged at the end of the nineteenth century from the desire to end sweated labor which had developed in the wake of industrialization.
The first successful attempts at using minimum wage laws to ameliorate the problem of nonliving wages occurred in the Australian state of Victoria in During the same time period, campaigns against sweated labor were occurring in the United States and England. In the United States, the earliest minimum wage laws were state laws focused on women and children. As in Australia, civic concern for sweated labor developed in the United States towards the end of the Gilded Age.
In New York state in , a group of female reformers who were worried about the harsh conditions of sweated labor in the country formed the Consumer's League of the City of New York. The consumer group sought to improve working conditions by boycotting products which were made under sweated conditions and did not conform to a code of "fair house" standards drawn up by them.
When NCL leaders in went to an international anti-sweatshop conference in Geneva , Switzerland and were introduced to Australian minimum wage legislation , which had successfully dealt with sweated labor, they came home believers and made minimum wage legislation part of their national platform.
Over the next two years, a coalition of social reform groups and labor advocates in Boston pushed for minimum wage legislation in the state. The strike brought national attention to the plight of the low wage textile workers, and pushed the state legislatures, who feared the magnitude of the strike, to enact progressive labor legislation.
By , fifteen U. Advocates for state minimum wage laws hoped that they would be upheld under the precedent of Muller v. Oregon , which upheld maximum working hours laws for women on the grounds that women required special protection that men did not. Children's Hospital that the District of Columbia's minimum wage law was unconstitutional, because the law interfered with the ability of employers to freely negotiate wage contracts with employees.
The court also noted that women did not require any more special protection by the law, following the passage in of the Nineteenth Amendment , which gave women the right to vote and equal legal status. However, at the same time, in the United States, the late 19th century ideas for favoring a minimum wage rather than wage subsidies coincided with the eugenist movement.
As a consequence, many prominent Progressive economists at the time, including Royal Meeker , Henry Rogers Seager , and Edward Cummings , argued for adoption of a minimum wage for the explicit purpose of supporting the "right" sort of semi- and unskilled laborers while forcing the "wrong" sort including immigrants, racial minorities, women, and the disabled out of the labor market and, over the longer term, impeding their ability to thrive and have families, or, in the case of women, push them out of the labor pool and back towards the home.
The recognized result of a minimum wage, a contraction in a firm's labor force and societal elimination of the "wrong" sort of people, was the specific stated outcome, with a view to applying it across the entirety of the American body politic. In , the Roosevelt administration during the New Deal made the first attempt at establishing a national minimum wage regiment with the National Industrial Recovery Act , which set minimum wage and maximum hours on an industry and regional basis.
United States ruled the act unconstitutional, and the minimum wage regulations were abolished. Parrish and upheld the constitutionality of minimum wage legislation enacted by Washington state and overturned the Adkins decision which marked the end of the Lochner era. Darby Lumber Co. In the United States, different states are able to set their own minimum wages independent of the federal government. When the state and federal minimum wage differ the higher wage prevails. As of January , [update] there were 29 states with a minimum wage higher than the federal minimum.
Legislation has passed recently in multiple states that significantly raises the minimum wage. Some smaller government entities, such as counties and cities, observe minimum wages that are higher than the state as a whole. In , only three cities had minimum wages that exceeded state or federal minimum wages, but by , there were San Francisco became the first major city in the U.
In contrast, the relatively high minimum wage in Puerto Rico has been blamed by various politicians and commentators as a highly significant factor in the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis.
Some politicians in the United States advocate linking the minimum wage to the consumer price index , thereby increasing the wage automatically each year based on increases to the consumer price index. Linking the minimum wage to the consumer price index avoids the erosion of the purchasing power of the minimum wage with time because of inflation. In Washington state became the first state to approve consumer price indexing for its minimum wage.
Some minimum wage ordinances have an exemption for unionized workers. Later that year, the council approved an increase without the union waiver. The economic effects of raising the minimum wage are unclear. Adjusting the minimum wage may affect current and future levels of employment, prices of goods and services, economic growth, income inequality, and poverty. The interconnection of price levels, central bank policy, wage agreements, and total aggregate demand creates a situation in which conclusions drawn from macroeconomic analysis are highly influenced by the underlying assumptions of the interpreter.
In neoclassical economics , the law of demand states that—all else being equal—raising the price of any particular good or service reduces the quantity demanded. Conceptually, if an employer does not believe a worker generates value equal to or in excess of the minimum wage, they do not hire or retain that worker. Other economists of different schools of thought argue that a limited increase in the minimum wage does not affect or increases the number of jobs available.
Economist David Cooper for instance estimates that a higher minimum wage would support the creation of at least 85, new jobs in the United States. They found "no indication that the rise in the minimum wage reduced employment. Neumark's study relied on payroll records from a sample of large fast-food restaurant chains, whereas the Card-Krueger study relied on business surveys. A literature review conducted by David Neumark and William Wascher in which surveyed studies related to the employment effects of minimum wages found that about two-thirds of peer-reviewed economic research showed a positive correlation between minimum wage hikes and increased unemployment—especially for young and unskilled workers.
Statistical meta-analysis conducted by Tom Stanley in in contrast found that there is evidence of publication bias in minimum wage literature, and that correction of this bias shows no relationship between the minimum wage and unemployment.
Moreover, they concluded, "Once this publication selection is corrected, little or no evidence of a negative association between minimum wages and employment remains. The Economist wrote in December in sum that: "A minimum wage, providing it is not set too high, could thus boost pay with no ill effects on jobs Some studies find no harm to employment from federal or state minimum wages, others see a small one, but none finds any serious damage High minimum wages, however, particularly in rigid labour markets, do appear to hit employment.
In the state with the highest minimum wage in the nation, Washington, exceeded the national average for job growth in the United States. A study in the Quarterly Journal of Economics on state changes in minimum wage levels between and had no impact on the overall number of low-wage jobs. One reason why the minimum wage may increase employment or have no impact on employment is that if monopsony power is present within a labour market.
The latter statistic, in CBO's estimation would rise over time in any wage increase scenario as capital allocation replaces some workers. The number of persons in poverty would be reduced by 1.
The CBO notes that it does not consider the inflationary effects of these policies when estimating the change in poverty level as these estimates, while increasing inflation, are uncertain. Additionally, the CBO assumed that the weight of benefits would accrue to those below the poverty level based on historical wage increase levels. They noted that data on the minimum wage tends to assume the opposite that benefits accrue to those above the poverty level , but that that data was not definitive enough to allow for estimation in their work.
Some aspects of the CBO study are summarized in the table below. Conceptually, raising the minimum wage increases the cost of labor, with all other things being equal. Thus, employers may accept some combination of lower profits, higher prices, or increased automation. If prices increase, consumers may demand a lesser quantity of the product, substitute other products , or switch to imported products, due to the effects of price elasticity of demand.
Marginal producers those who are barely profitable enough to survive may be forced out of business if they cannot raise their prices sufficiently to offset the higher cost of labor.
Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago research from has shown that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases. We detected significant effect modification by unemployment rate, with the largest effects of minimum wage on reducing suicides observed at higher unemployment levels. Effects appear greatest during periods of high unemployment.
A White House report based on "back of envelope calculations and literature review" argued that higher hourly wages led to less crime. In contrast in a journal article, Masanori Hashimoto noted that minimum wage hikes lead to increased levels of property crime in areas affected by the minimum wage after its increase.
The report also argued that to compensate for the decrease in legal avenues for production and consumption, poor communities increasingly turn to illegal trade and activity. Whether growth GDP, a measure of both income and production increases or decreases depends significantly on whether the income shifted from owners to workers results in an overall higher level of spending. The tendency of a consumer to spend their next dollar is referred to as the marginal propensity to consume or MPC.
The transfer of income from higher income owners who tend to save more, meaning a lower MPC to lower income workers who tend to save less, with a higher MPC can actually lead to an increase in total consumption and higher demand for goods, leading to increased employment. The CBO reported in February that income GDP overall would be marginally higher after raising the minimum wage, indicating a small net positive increase in growth.
Additionally, a study by Overstreet in examined increases to the minimum wage in Arizona. This study could show that smaller increases in minimum wage may not distort labor market as significantly as larger increases experienced in other cities and states. Thus, the small increases experienced in Arizona may have actually led to a slight increase in economic growth.
An increase in the minimum wage is a form of redistribution from higher-income persons business owners or "capital" to lower income persons workers or "labor" and therefore should reduce income inequality. The CBO estimated in February that raising the minimum wage under either scenario described above would improve income inequality. Families with income more than 6 times the poverty threshold would see their incomes fall due in part to their business profits declining with higher employee costs , while families with incomes below that threshold would rise.
Among hourly-paid workers in , , earned the federal minimum wage and about 1. Together, these 2. In contrast, research conducted by David Neumark and colleagues in found that minimum wages are associated with reductions in the hours and employment of low-wage workers.
Indeed, the evidence is stronger that minimum wages occasionally increase poverty…" . According to some economists, minimum wage increases result in a variety of negative effects for lower-skilled workers including reduced employment, reduced hours, reduced benefits, and less safe working conditions.
A survey conducted by economist Robert Whaples of a sample of Ph. According to a fall survey conducted by Fuller and Geide-Stevenson, Economist Paul Krugman advocated raising the minimum wage moderately in , citing several reasons, including:.
Democratic candidates, elected officials, and activists support an increase in the minimum wage. Most Republican elected officials oppose action to increase the minimum wage,   and have blocked Democratic efforts to increase the minimum wage. In April , the U. Senate debated the minimum wage on the federal level by way of the Minimum Wage Fairness Act.