Islamic extremism, Islamist extremism or radical Islam is extremism associated with the religion of odishahaalchaal.com are terms with varying definitions, ranging from academic understandings to the idea that all ideologies other than Islam have failed and have demonstrated their bankruptcy, as well as political ones like the definition by the government of the United Kingdom which understands. While having an overtly religious meaning СTazkiya al-NafsТ (Purification of the Self), in Islamic extremist terms it means having a trusted individual vouch for you, or reference you, when travelling in a conflict zone. This may be required to pass vetting processes when joining extremist groups like the Islamic State or al-Qaeda.
Islamic extremism how long do burn scars take to fade, Islamist extremism or radical Islam is extremism associated with the religion of Islam.
These are controversial terms with varying definitions, ranging from academic isamist to the idea that all ideologies other than Islam have failed and have demonstrated their bankruptcy,  as well as political ones like the definition by the government of the United Kingdom which understands Islamic extremism as any form of Islam that opposes "democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs".
It is not to be confused with Islamic fundamentalism or Islamismthe former defined as a movement of Muslims who are of the view that Muslim-majority countries should return to iskamist fundamentals of an Islamic state though some see Islamic fundamentalism as a form of Islamic extremism and the latter being a type of political Islam.
Islamic terrorism or jihadism is very often the result of Islamic extremism, although not in every case. Aside from those, two major what is an islamist extremist have been offered for What is lye in spanish extremism, sometimes using overlapping but also distinct aspects of extreme interpretations and pursuits of Islamic wyat.
The judge refers to several grounds: section 20 of the Act; the definition of "terrorism" in section 1 of the Terrorism Act and the decision us the Supreme Court in R v Gul. This case is noteworthy because the judge lists a point definition of Islamic extremism that he used to determine the case:.
In Charles Haddon-Cave 's findings he wrote: . According to the academic definition of radical Islam, the second condition for something to be called radical Islam, is that it is antigovernmental. Consequently, a government is a condition for radical Islam. However, even though the peace of Westphalia was established in and thus introduced the nation statethe writings of the early Islam period are influential to the contemporary writings that were coined radical after the concept of the nation state was established in Islamic regions as extremish.
Key influences of radical Islam that stem from early Islam include:. According to some contemporary Muslim commentators, extremism within Islam goes back to the 7th century to the Kharijites. Tradition traces the origin of the Kharijities to a battle between islqmist and Mu'awiya at Siffin in When 'Ali was faced with a military stalemate and agreed to submit the dispute to arbitration, some of his party withdrew their support from extremisg.
They also called themselves al-shurat, "vendors", to reflect their willingness to sell their lives in martyrdom. These original Kharijites opposed both 'Ali and Mu'awiya, and appointed their own leaders.
They were decisively defeated by 'Ali, who was in turn assassinated extremidt a Kharijite. Kharijites engaged in guerilla warfare against the Umayyads, but only became a movement to be reckoned with during the second civil war when they at one point controlled more territory than any of their rivals. Kharijites were, in fact, one of the what was wild bill hickok famous for threats to Ibn al-Zubayr's bid for the caliphate; during this time they controlled Yamama and most of southern Arabia and captured the oasis town of al-Ta'if.
The most extreme faction of Kharijites was that of the Azariqa, who condemned all other Muslims as apostates, also known as the process of takfir. The Kharijites were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to takfirwhereby they declared other Muslims to be unbelievers and therefore deemed them worthy of death.
The more moderate Ibadi Kharijites were longer-lived, continuing to wield political power in North and East Africa and in eastern Arabia during the 'Abbasid period. Because of their readiness to declare any opponent an apostate, the extreme Kharijites tended to fragment into small groups. One of the few points that the various Kharijite splinter groups held in common was their view of the caliphate, which differed from other Muslim theories on two points.
By the time that Ibn al-Muqaffa' wrote his political treatise early in the 'Abassid period, the Kharijites were no longer a significant political threat, at least in the Islamic heartlands. The memory of the menace they had posed to Muslim unity and of the moral challenge generated by their pious idealism still weighed heavily on Muslim political and religious thought, however. Even if the Kharijites could no longer threaten, their ghosts still had to be answered. The contemporary period begins after With the extinction of the Ottoman Empirethe caliphate was also abolished.
This heavily influenced Islamic thinking in general, but also what would later be coined radial Islamic thought. Sayyid Qutb could be said to have founded the actual movement of radical Islam. There are over Islamic extremist groups active today. Abu Ibrahimi al-Hashimi al-Qurashi - present. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Form of Islam. This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page.
Learn how and when to remove these template how to put music on photo cd. This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article. August The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject.
You may improve this articlediscuss the issue on the talk pageor create a new articleas appropriate. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. The neutrality of this article is disputed.
Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page. Please do not remove this message until conditions ls do so are met. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Khawarij. Main article: Ibn Taymiyyah. Main article: Muhammad Abduh. Main article: Rashid Rida.
Main article: Hassan al-Banna. Main article: Abul A'la Maududi. Main article: Sayyid Qutb. This list is incomplete ; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources. Understanding Jihad. University of California Press. ISBN BBC News. Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 11 November Farmer Understanding radical Islam: medieval ideology in the twenty-first century.
Peter Lang. Isaacson; Colin Lewis Rubenstein Islam in Asia: changing political realities. Transaction Publishers. A New What is a butterfly spread to Islam 3rd ed.
The Globe and Mail. The Globe and Mail Opinion. Retrieved 19 April Quiliam Foundation. Archived from the original PDF extremizt 2 August Retrieved 17 November Retrieved 10 April The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 23 October Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. Harvard University Press. Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 16 June Retrieved 4 June Retrieved 7 September Retrieved 23 April The New York Times.
The Sunday Guardian. Retrieved 5 June Conflict News. Archived from the islaimst on 17 March extrenist Institute for Economics and Peace. Archived from the original PDF on 16 February Retrieved 23 February Retrieved 1 September Asia Times. Archived from the how to wash with summers eve on 20 July Retrieved 23 October Retrieved 17 August
It goes on to say that Islamist extremism is an ideology that accuses the West of perpetrating a war on Islam. If that definition is now clear, it wasn't always so. Islamic terrorism, Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism are terrorist acts against civilians committed by violent Islamists who have a religious motivation. The largest numbers of incidents and fatalities caused by Islamic terrorism have occurred in India, Iraq, Afghanistan, Nigeria, Pakistan, Yemen, Somalia, Syria, and Mali. Violent Islamist extremism comes in many varieties, but what drives all violent Islamists is a belief in the obligation, on theological and political lines, to establish and enforce an absolute reading of sharia law as the underlying principle of public and state life.
Islam portal. Islamic terrorism , Islamist terrorism or radical Islamic terrorism are terrorist acts against civilians committed by violent Islamists who have a religious motivation. Such attacks have targeted both Muslims and non-Muslims, however the majority affect Muslims themselves. Justifications given for attacks on civilians by Islamic extremist groups come from extreme interpretations of the Islamic holy books Quran and the Hadith literature.
Use of the phrase "Islamic terrorism" is disputed. In Western political speech, some people [ who? Bush and UK Prime Minister Tony Blair repeatedly stated that the war against terrorism had nothing to do with Islam, but was a war against evil.
But what I have been careful about when I describe these issues is to make sure that we do not lump these murderers into the billion Muslims that exist around the world Replacing the term with " Islamist Terrorism" has been suggested as a way of distancing terrorism from Islam,  while others inside and out of the Islamic world such as Imran Khan , the prime minister of Pakistan, and academic Bruce Lawrence , oppose its use, asserting there is no connection between Islam and terrorism.
Some Muslim scholars assert that extremism within Islam goes back to the Kharijites who existed in the 7th century. From their essentially political position, they developed extreme doctrines that set them apart from both mainstream Sunni and Shi'a Muslims.
The Kharijites were particularly noted for adopting a radical approach to takfir , whereby they declared that other Muslims were unbelievers and therefore worthy of death.
During the s and s the Arab and Islamic world saw a series of Marxist and anti-Western transformations and movements. These movements were revolutionary-nationalist, not Islamic, but they thought terrorism was an effective tactic which sparked the first phase of international terrorism in the modern era which took place outside immediate zones of conflict.
Following the Six-Day War , Palestinian leaders realised that the Arab world could not defeat Israel in regular warfare. Palestinian groups then studied the revolutionary movements , led them to switch focus from guerrilla warfare to terrorism in urban areas.
These movements spread terrorist tactics throughout the world. After the failure of Arab nationalists in the Six-Day War vs. Israel, religiously motivated groups, with Muslim Brotherhood being the most noted, grew in influence with the support of Saudi Arabia and came into conflict with secular nationalists in the Middle East. A major event in international Islamic terrorism was the Iranian Revolution. The SovietЧAfghan War and the following mujahedin conflict that raged from to , provided Islamic terrorist groups with increasing numbers of veteran jihadists.
Since forming in , Pakistan supported Taliban militia in Afghanistan has acquired many attributes associated with state sponsors of terrorism. Bruce Hoffman of RAND , states that while in only 2 of 64 terrorist organizations were categorized as religious, by 26 of 56 almost half of terrorist organizations were religiously motivated, with Islam being the majority religion in this group.
From , religious extremists were more wiling to attack targets outside of their immediate region, becoming global in nature. The bombing of the World Trade Center and the September 11 attacks illustrate this trend.
According to research by the German newspaper Welt am Sonntag , there were 31, Islamist terrorism attacks, which killed at least , people, between 11 September and 21 April Many of the victims were Muslims, including most of the victims who were killed in attacks involving 12 or more deaths.
The motivation of Islamic terrorists has been hotly disputed. Some such as James L. Payne attributing it to a struggle against "U. They are seen as "a sacrament One of the Kouachi brothers responsible for the Charlie Hebdo shooting called a French journalist, saying, "We are the defenders of Prophet Mohammed. According to Indonesian Islamic leader Yahya Cholil Staquf in a Time interview, within the classical Islamic tradition the relationship between Muslims and non-Muslims is assumed to be one of segregation and enmity.
In his view extremism and terrorism are linked with orthodox Islam and that radical Islamic movements are nothing new. He also added that Western politicians should stop pretending that extremism is not linked to Islam. However, two studies of the background of Muslim terrorists in EuropeЧone of the UK and one of FranceЧfound little connection between religious piety and terrorism. The "restricted" UK report of hundreds of case studies by the domestic counter-intelligence agency MI5 found that.
Many lack religious literacy and could actually be regarded as religious novices. Very few have been brought up in strongly religious households, and there is a higher than average proportion of converts. Some are involved in drug-taking, drinking alcohol and visiting prostitutes. MI5 says there is evidence that a well-established religious identity actually protects against violent radicalisation. A "general portrait" of "the conditions and circumstances" under which people living in France become "Islamic radicals" terrorists or would-be terrorists by Olivier Roy see above found radicalisation was not an "uprising of a Muslim community that is victim to poverty and racism: only young people join, including converts".
David Shariatmadari argued that if the cause of Islamic terrorism is Islam, why is the history of jihadi terrorism so very short: it is emphatically a late 20th and early 21st-century phenomenon, yet Islam has been around since the seventh century, implying that the cause of Islamic terrorism is more political than religious.
Donald Holbrook, a Research Fellow at the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence , analyzes a sample of 30 works by jihadist propagandists and finds several passages of the Quran exploited and distorted to suit the objectives of violent jihad.
Consider Surah :. But when these months, prohibited for fighting , are over, slay the idolaters wheresoever you find them, and take them captive or besiege them, and lie in wait for them at every likely place. But if they repent and fulfill their devotional obligations and pay the zakat, then let them go their way, for God is forgiving and kind.
Holbrook notes they cherry-picked the first part "slay the idolaters" but fail to quote and discuss limiting factors at the end of the ayat , "but if they repent Е" This, Holbrook argues, is how violent jihadists are "shamelessly selective in order to serve their propaganda objectives. Supporters of bin Laden have also pointed to reports according to which the Islamic prophet Muhammad attacked towns at night or with catapults, and argued that he must have condoned incidental harm to noncombatants, since it would have been impossible to distinguish them from combatants during such attacks.
The Pakistani theologian Javed Ahmad Ghamidi blames Muslim madrasas that indoctrinate children with Islamic supremacist views, such as that Muslims are legally superior to unbelievers particularly former Muslims , and that jihad will eventually bring about a single caliphate to rule the world.
The Princeton University Middle Eastern scholar Bernard Lewis states that classical Islamic jurisprudence does not allow terrorism, and the "classical jurists of Islam never remotely considered [jihad] the kind of unprovoked, unannounced mass slaughter of uninvolved civil populations".
Being a religious obligation, jihad is elaborately regulated in sharia law, which discusses in minute detail such matters as the opening, conduct, interruption and cessation of hostilities, the treatment of prisoners and noncombatants, the use of weapons, etc.
Similarly, the laws of Jihad categorically preclude wanton and indiscriminate slaughter. A point on which they insist is the need for a clear declaration of war before beginning hostilities, and for proper warning before resuming hostilities after a truce.
What the classical jurists of Islam never remotely considered is the kind of unprovoked, unannounced mass slaughter of uninvolved civil populations that we saw in New York two weeks ago.
For this there is no precedent and no authority in Islam. While techniques of war are restricted by classical Islamic jurisprudence, the scope is not. Lewis states that Jihad is an unlimited offensive to bring the whole world under Islamic rule and law. According to a graph by U. State Department, terrorist attacks have escalated worldwide since the invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq.
For example, Hezbollah initiated suicide bombings after a complex reworking of the concept of martyrdom. Kramer explains that the Israeli occupation of the South Lebanon Security Zone raised the temperature necessary for this reinterpretation of Islam, but occupation alone would not have been sufficient for suicide terrorism.
Former CIA analyst Michael Scheuer argues that terrorist attacks specifically al-Qaeda attacks on targets in the United States are not motivated by a religiously inspired hatred of American culture or religion, demonstrating a basic misunderstanding of Islamic dogma, but by the belief that U. Maajid Nawaz and Sam Harris argue that many acts of Islamic extremism can not be connected in any way with the Western intervention in Muslim lands.
What does enforcing headscarves tents in fact on women in Waziristan and Afghanistan, and lashing them, forcing men to grow beards under threat of a whip, chopping off hands, and so forth, have to do with US foreign policy? Harris: This catalogue of irrelevancy could be extended indefinitely. Scott Atran has found the greatest predictors of suicide bombings to be not religion but group dynamics: While personal humiliation does not turn out to be a motivation for those attempting to kill civilians, the perception that others with whom one feels a common bond are being humiliated can be a powerful driver for action.
Rather than dying "for a cause", they might be said to have died "for each other". One ideology that plays a role in terrorism by using the name of Islam, is Wahabism. Transnational Islamist ideology, specifically of the militant Islamists, assert that Western policies and society are actively anti-Islamic, or as it is sometimes described, waging a " war against Islam ".
Islamists often identify what they see as a historical struggle between Christianity and Islam , dating back as far as the Crusades , among other historical conflicts between practitioners of the two respective religions. Osama bin Laden , for example, almost invariably described his enemies as aggressive and his call for action against them as defensive. Defensive jihad differs from offensive jihad by being " fard al-ayn", or a personal obligation of all Muslims, rather than "fard al-kifaya", a communal obligation, that is, some Muslims may perform it but it is not required of others.
Hence, framing a fight as defensive has the advantage of both appearing to be a victim rather than appearing to be an aggressor, and giving the struggle the very highest religious priority for all good Muslims.
Many of the violent terrorist groups use the name of jihad to fight against certain Western nations and Israel. Most militant Islamists oppose Israel's policies, and they often oppose its very existence. According to U. Army Colonel Dale C. Eikmeier, "ideology", rather than any individual or group, is the "center of gravity" of al-Qaeda and related groups, and that ideology is a "collection of violent Islamic thought called Qutbism ".
The historic rivalry between Hindus and Muslims in the Indian subcontinent has also often been the primary motive behind some of the most deadly terrorist attacks in India. According to a U. State Department report, India topped the list of countries most affected by Islamic terrorism.
In addition, Islamist militants, scholars, and leaders opposed Western society for what they see as immoral secularism. Islamists have claimed that such unrestricted free speech has led to the proliferation of pornography , immorality , secularism , homosexuality , feminism , and many other ideas that Islamists often oppose. Although bin Laden almost always emphasized the alleged oppression of Muslims by America and Jews when talking about the need for jihad in his messages, in his "Letter to America", he answered the question, "What are we calling you to, and what do we want from you?
We call you to be a people of manners, principles, honour, and purity; to reject the immoral acts of fornication, homosexuality, intoxicants, gambling's, and trading with interest You separate religion from your policies, You are the nation that permits Usury, which has been forbidden by all the religions You are a nation that permits the production, trading and usage of intoxicants You are a nation that permits acts of immorality You are a nation that permits gambling in its all forms.
You use women to serve passengers, visitors, and strangers to increase your profit margins. You then rant that you support the liberation of women. Given their perceived piety , The Times noted the irony when an investigation discovered that Jihadists were seeking anonymity through some of the same networks used to distribute child pornography. The paper praised the raid's ability to "improve understanding of the mindsets of both types of criminals".
Navy SEALs. In , Britain's then head of MI5 Eliza Manningham-Buller said of Al-Qaeda that it "has developed an ideology which claims that Islam is under attack, and needs to be defended". Colonel Eikmeier points out the "questionable religious credentials" of many Islamist theorists, or "Qutbists", which can be a "means to discredit them and their message":. With the exception of Abul Ala Maududi and Abdullah Yusuf Azzam , none of Qutbism's main theoreticians trained at Islam's recognized centers of learning.