History of Mental Illness
Jan 02, · The new, heterogeneous religion then takes a shape of its own. This has been seen most clearly in Roman Catholic missionary history. Take, for example, the Roman Catholic Church’s proselytizing of animistic South America. Religion in capitalist society provides a comforting illusion that obscures the realities of class conflict and class interest and, thus, is a profound example of false consciousness. By consoling the frustrated and oppressed, it helps prevent collective action to change the real source of their problems.
This module is divided into three parts. The first is a brief introduction to various criteria we use to define or distinguish between normality and abnormality. The second, largest part is a history of mental illness from the Stone Age to the 20th century, with a special emphasis on the recurrence of three causal explanations for exxample illness; supernatural, somatogenic, and psychogenic factors.
This part briefly touches upon trephination, the Greek theory of hysteria within the wuat of the four bodily humors, witch hunts, asylums, moral treatment, mesmerism, catharsis, the mental hygiene movement, deinstitutionalization, community mental health services, and managed care.
The third part concludes with a brief description of the issue of diagnosis. References to mental illness can be found throughout history. The evolution of mental illness, however, has not been linear or progressive but rather cyclical. Whether a behavior is considered normal or abnormal depends on the context surrounding the behavior and thus changes as a function of a particular time and culture.
In the past, uncommon behavior or behavior that deviated from the sociocultural norms and expectations of a specific culture and period has been used as a how to fix user environment error xp to silence or control certain individuals or groups. Throughout history there have examplee three general theories of the etiology of mental illness: supernaturalsomatogenicand psychogenic.
Supernatural theories attribute mental illness to possession by evil or demonic spirits, displeasure of gods, eclipses, planetary gravitation, curses, and sin. Somatogenic theories identify disturbances in physical functioning resulting from either religon, genetic inheritance, or brain damage or imbalance. Psychogenic theories focus on traumatic or stressful experiences, maladaptive learned associations and cognitions, or distorted perceptions. Etiological theories of mental illness determine the care and treatment mentally ill individuals receive.
As we will see below, an individual believed to be possessed by the devil will be viewed and treated differently from an individual believed to be suffering from an excess of yellow bile. Their treatments will also differ, from exorcism to blood-letting. The theories, however, remain the same. They coexist as well as recycle over time. Trephination is an example of how to install too many items on pc earliest supernatural explanation for mental illness.
Examination of prehistoric skulls and cave art from as early as BC has identified surgical drilling of holes in skulls to treat head injuries and epilepsy as well as to allow animistkc spirits trapped lf the skull to be released Restak, As such, a harmonious life that allowed for the proper balance of yin and yang and movement of vital air was essential Tseng, Mesopotamian and Egyptian papyri from BC describe women suffering from mental illness resulting from a wandering uterus exwmple named hysteria by the Greeks : The uterus could become dislodged and attached to parts of the body like the liver religipn chest cavity, preventing their proper functioning or producing varied and sometimes painful symptoms.
As a result, the Egyptians, and later the Greeks, also employed a somatogenic treatment of strong smelling what is an example of an animistic religion to guide the uterus back to its proper location pleasant odors to lure and unpleasant ones to dispel.
Temple attendance with religious healing ceremonies and incantations to the gods were employed to assist in the healing process. Hebrews saw madness as punishment from God, so treatment consisted of confessing sins and repenting. Physicians were also believed to be able to comfort and cure madness, however. Greek physicians rejected supernatural explanations xeample mental disorders.
It was around BC that Hippocrates — Amimistic attempted to separate superstition and religion from medicine by systematizing the belief that a deficiency in or especially an excess of one of the four essential bodily fluids i.
For example, someone who was too temperamental suffered from too much blood and thus blood-letting would be the necessary treatment. Hippocrates classified mental illness into one of four categories—epilepsy, mania, melancholia, and brain fever—and like other prominent physicians and philosophers of his time, he did not believe mental illness was shameful or that mentally ill individuals should be held accountable for their behavior.
Mentally ill individuals were cared for at home by family members and the state shared no responsibility for their care. Humorism remained a recurrent somatogenic theory up until the 19th century. While Greek physician Galen AD — rejected the notion of a uterus having an animistic soulhe agreed with the notion that an imbalance of the four bodily fluids could cause mental illness.
He also opened the religioh for psychogenic explanations for mental illness, however, by allowing for the experience of psychological stress as a potential cause of abnormality. By the late Middle Ages, economic and political turmoil threatened the power of the Roman Catholic church.
Between the 11th and 15th centuries, supernatural theories of mental disorders again dominated Europe, fueled by natural disasters like plagues and famines that lay people interpreted as brought about by the devil. Superstition, astrology, and alchemy took hold, and common treatments included prayer rites, relic touching, confessions, and atonement.
Beginning in the 13th century the mentally ill, especially women, began to be persecuted as witches who were possessed. At the height of the ainmistic hunts during the 15th through 17th centuries, with the Protestant Reformation having plunged Europe into religious strife, two Dominican monks wrote the Malleus Maleficarum as the ultimate manual to guide witch hunts. Modern treatments of mental illness are most associated with the establishment how to spot and stalk mule deer hospitals and asylums beginning in the 16th century.
War and economic depression produced vast numbers of undesirables and these were separated from society and sent to these institutions.
Two of the most well-known institutions, St. As confinement laws focused on protecting the public from the mentally ill, governments became responsible for housing and feeding undesirables in exchange for their personal liberty. Most inmates were institutionalized against their will, lived in filth and chained to walls, and were commonly exhibited to the public for a fee. Mental illness was nonetheless viewed somatogenically, so treatments were similar to those for physical illnesses: purges, bleedings, and emetics.
As such, instilling fear was believed to be the best way to restore a disordered what is a hot dog to reason.
By the 18th century, protests rose over the conditions under which the mentally ill lived, and the 18th and 19th centuries saw the growth of a more humanitarian view of mental illness.
In Italian what is an example of an animistic religion Vincenzo Chiarughi — removed the chains of patients at his St. Boniface hospital in Florence, Italy, and encouraged good hygiene and recreational and occupational training.
In England, humanitarian reforms rose from religious concerns. William Tuke — urged the Yorkshire Society of Quaker Friends to establish the York Retreat inwhere patients were guests, not prisoners, and where the standard of care depended on dignity and courtesy as well as the therapeutic and moral value of physical work Bell, While America had asylums for the mentally ill—such as the Examplee Hospital in Philadelphia and the Williamsburg Hospital, established in and —the somatogenic theory of mental illness of the time—promoted especially by the father of America psychiatry, Benjamin Rush — —had led to treatments such as blood-letting, gyrators, and tranquilizer chairs.
Moral treatment had to be abandoned in America in the second half of the 19th century, however, when these asylums became overcrowded and custodial in nature and could no longer provide ot space nor attention necessary. When retired school teacher Dorothea Dix discovered the negligence that resulted from such conditions, she advocated for the establishment of state hospitals.
By the late 19th century, moral animstic had given way to the mental hygiene movement, founded by former patient Clifford Beers with the publication of his memoir A Mind That Found Itself.
European psychiatry in the late 18th century and throughout the 19th century, however, struggled between somatogenic and psychogenic explanations of mental illness, particularly hysteria, what is an example of an animistic religion caused physical symptoms such as blindness or paralysis with no apparent physiological explanation.
Franz Anton Mesmer —influenced by contemporary discoveries in electricity, attributed hysterical symptoms to imbalances in a universal magnetic fluid found in individuals, rather than to a wandering uterus Forrest, James Braid — shifted this belief in mesmerism to one in hypnosis, thereby proposing a psychogenic treatment for the removal of symptoms.
Josef Breuer — and Sigmund Wha — would resolve this dispute in favor of a psychogenic explanation for mental illness by treating hysteria through hypnosis, which eventually led to the cathartic method that became the precursor for psychoanalysis during the first half of the 20th century. Psychoanalysis was the dominant psychogenic treatment for mental illness during the first half of the 20th century, providing the launching pad for the more than different schools of psychotherapy found today Magnavita, Most of these schools cluster what is considered good internet speed for gaming broader behavioral, cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, and client-centered approaches to psychotherapy applied in individual, marital, family, or group formats.
In contrast, the leading somatogenic treatment for mental illness can be found in the establishment of the first psychotropic medications in the midth century. Restraints, electro-convulsive shock therapy, and lobotomies continued to be employed in American state institutions until the s, but they quickly made way for a burgeoning pharmaceutical industry that has viewed and treated mental illness as a chemical imbalance in the brain.
Both etiological theories coexist today in what the psychological discipline holds as the biopsychosocial model of explaining human behavior. While individuals may be born with a genetic predisposition for a certain psychological disorder, certain psychological stressors need to be present for them to develop the disorder. Sociocultural factors such as sociopolitical or economic unrest, poor living conditions, geligion problematic interpersonal relationships are also viewed as contributing factors.
However much we want to believe that we are above the treatments described above, or that the present is always the most enlightened time, let us not forget that our thinking today continues to reflect the same underlying somatogenic and psychogenic how to get rid of ballpoint ink stains on clothes of mental illness discussed throughout this cursory 9,year history.
Progress in the treatment of mental illness necessarily implies improvements in the diagnosis of mental illness. A standardized diagnostic classification system with agreed-upon definitions of psychological disorders creates a shared language among mental-health providers and aids in clinical research.
The DSM has undergone various revisions in,examppe, and it is the DSM-III version that began a multiaxial classification system that took into account the entire individual rather than just the specific problem behavior. Axes I and II contain the clinical diagnoses, including intellectual disability and personality disorders. Axes III and IV list any relevant medical conditions or psychosocial or environmental stressors, respectively.
The most recent version -- the DSM has combined the first three axes and removed the last two. These revisions reflect an attempt to help clinicians streamline diagnosis and work better with other diagnostic systems such as health diagnoses outlined what are the different types of cloth diapers the World Health Organization. While the DSM has provided a necessary shared language for clinicians, aided in clinical research, and allowed clinicians to be reimbursed by insurance companies for their services, it is not without criticism.
It is also a medicalized categorical rwligion system that assumes disordered behavior does not differ in degree but in kind, as opposed to a dimensional classification system that would plot disordered behavior along a continuum. Finally, the what is a grace church of diagnosable disorders has tripled since it was first published inso that almost half of Americans will have a diagnosable disorder in their lifetime, contributing to the continued concern of labeling and stigmatizing mentally ill individuals.
These concerns appear to be relevant even in the DSM-5 version that came out in May of Browse Content History of Mental Illness. Share this module to:.
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The social positivism of Comte and Mill
He said “Africans combine a belief in the existence of an omnipotent and omnipresent supreme god, with multitudes of subordinate deities.” So here you have the fact that we just simply cannot easily summarize African religion with a single term like “animism” or “animistic” or “primal” or “fetishism” or whatever. Loosely classified as animism, the beliefs are not recognised by the state as a religion. Animistic beliefs are passed down through oral tradition due to the lack of a writing system in indigenous groups, who call their beliefs agama adat (traditional or customary religions). The different religions are rather varied, with different names and. Religion in Japan manifests primarily in Shinto and in Buddhism, the two main faiths, which Japanese people often practice simultaneously. According to estimates, as many as 80% of the populace follow Shinto rituals to some degree, worshiping ancestors and spirits at domestic altars and public odishahaalchaal.com almost equally high number is reported as Buddhist.
Religion in Japan NHK research . Religion in Japan manifests primarily in Shinto and in Buddhism , the two main faiths , which Japanese people often practice simultaneously. An almost equally high number is reported  as Buddhist. Spirituality and worship are highly eclectic and personalized, and religious affiliation is an alien notion.
According to the annual statistical research on religion in by the Government of Japan 's Agency for Culture Affairs, Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified "Shinto religion", but rather to a collection of native beliefs and of mythology. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual dating from around the time of the Nara and Heian periods.
Profound changes occurred in Japanese society in the 20th century especially after World War II , including rapid industrialisation and urbanisation. New sects of Shinto , as well as movements claiming a thoroughly independent status, and also new forms of Buddhist lay societies, provided ways of aggregation for people uprooted from traditional families and village institutions.
The officially recognized new religions number in the hundreds, and total membership reportedly numbers in the tens of millions. Many of these new religions derive from Shinto, retain the fundamental characters of Shinto, and often identify themselves as forms of Shinto.
After overcoming brief yet violent oppositions by conservative forces, it was accepted by the Japanese court in The six Buddhist sects initially established in Nara are today together known as " Nara Buddhism " and are relatively small.
When the capital moved to Heian, more forms of Buddhism arrived from China, including the still-popular Shingon Buddhism , an esoteric form of Buddhism similar to Tibet's Vajrayana Buddhism, and Tendai , a monastic conservative form known better by its Chinese name, Tiantai. When the shogunate took power in the 12th century and the administrative capital moved to Kamakura , more forms of Buddhism arrived.
The most popular was Zen , which became the most popular type of Buddhism of that time. With the Meiji Restoration in , that involved the centralisation of imperial power and the modernisation of the state, Shinto was made the state religion and an order of elimination of mutual influence of Shinto and Buddhism was enacted, followed by a movement to thoroughly eradicate Buddhism.
Nowadays, the most popular branch is Pure Land Buddhism , arrived in the Kamakura period. It emphasizes the role of Amitabha Buddha and promises that reciting the phrase " Namu Amida Butsu " upon death will result in being removed by Amitabha to the "Western Paradise" or " Pure Land ", and then to Nirvana. Pure Land attracted the merchant and farmer classes. Another prevalent form of Buddhism is Nichiren Buddhism , which was established by the 13th century monk Nichiren who underlined the importance of the Lotus Sutra.
These missionaries were successful in converting large numbers of people in Kyushu, including peasants, former Buddhist monks, and members of the warrior class. Near the end of the 16th century, Franciscan missionaries arrived in Kyoto, despite a ban issued by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. In , Hideyoshi proclaimed a more serious edict and executed 26 Franciscans in Nagasaki as a warning. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his successors enforced the prohibition of Christianity with several further edicts, especially after the Shimabara Rebellion in the s.
Many Christians continued to practice in secret. However, more importantly, the discourses on Christianity became the property of the state during the Tokugawa period. The state leveraged its power over to declare Christians enemies of the state in order to create and maintain a legally enforceable identity for Japanese subjects.
As such, Christian identities or icons became the exclusive property of the Japanese state. Today, there are 1. Nagasaki Prefecture has the highest percentage of Christians: about 5. The Jewish population continued to grow into the s, fueled by immigration from Europe and the Middle East, with Tokyo and Kobe forming the largest communities. Some of those who remained married locals and were assimilated into Japanese society. There are community centres serving Jews in Tokyo  and Kobe.
Various Hindu deities, including the aforementioned, are worshipped in Shingon Buddhism. This denomination, and all other forms of Tantric Buddhism, borrow heavily from Tantric Hinduism. As of [update] , there were three Jain temples in the country. The Ryukyuan religion is the indigenous belief system of the people of Okinawa and the other Ryukyu Islands. While specific legends and traditions may vary slightly from place to place and island to island, the Ryukyuan religion is generally characterized by ancestor worship more accurately termed "ancestor respect" and the respecting of relationships between the living, the dead, and the gods and spirits of the natural world.
This differs from Japanese Shinto, where men are seen as the embodiment of purity. Ryukyuan religion has been influenced by Japanese Shinto and Buddhism, and various Chinese religions.
It is an animistic religion centered around the belief that Kamuy spirits or gods live in everything. Holy narratives regarding some of these gods are codified into the body of Chinese mythology. Taoism, being an indigenous religion in China, shares some roots with Shinto, although Taoism is more hermetic while Shinto is more shamanic.
Taoism's influence in Japan has been less profound than that of Japanese Neo-Confucianism. Unlike the Buddhists, the Neo-Confucians believed that reality existed, and could be understood by mankind, even if the interpretations of reality were slightly different depending on the school of Neo-Confucianism. The social aspects of the philosophy are hierarchical with a focus on filial piety.
This created a Confucian social stratification in Edo society that previously had not existed, dividing Japanese society into four main classes: samurai , farmers, artisans and merchants.
Neo-Confucianism also introduced elements of ethnocentrism into Japan. As the Chinese and Korean Neo-Confucians had regarded their own culture as the center of the world, the Japanese Neo-Confucians developed a similar national pride. Most Japanese participate in rituals and customs derived from several religious traditions. Life cycle events are often marked by visits to a Shinto shrine and Buddhist temples.
The birth of a new baby is celebrated with a formal shrine or temple visit at the age of about one month, as are the third, fifth, and seventh birthdays Shichi-Go-San and the official beginning of adulthood at age twenty Seijin shiki.
The vast majority of Japanese wedding ceremonies have been Christian for at least the last three and half decades.. Japanese funerals are usually performed by Buddhist priests, and Buddhist rites are also common on death day anniversaries of deceased family members. During the Heian period , the matsuri were organized into a formal calendar, and other festivals were added.
Very few matsuri or annual feasts are national holidays, but they are included in the national calendar of annual events. Most matsuri are local events and follow local traditions. They may be sponsored by schools, towns, or other groups but are most often associated with Shinto shrines. Some of the holidays are secular in nature, but the two most significant for the majority of Japanese— New Year's Day and Obon —involve visits to Shinto shrines or Buddhist temples and only Buddhist temples for later.
The New Year's holiday January 1—3 is marked by the practice of numerous customs and the consumption of special foods. Visiting Shinto shrines or Buddhist temples to pray for family blessings in the coming year, dressing in a kimono , hanging special decorations, eating noodles on New Year's Eve, and playing a poetry card game are among these practices.
During Obon, bon spirit altars are set up in front of Buddhist family altars, which, along with ancestral graves, are cleaned in anticipation of the return of the spirits.
People living away from their family homes return for visits with relatives. Celebrations include folk dancing and prayers at Buddhist temples as well as family rituals in the home. In early Japanese history , the ruling class was responsible for performing propitiatory rituals, which later came to be identified as Shinto, and for the introduction and support of Buddhism.
Later, religious organization was used by regimes for political purposes; for instance, the Tokugawa government required each family to be registered as a member of a Buddhist temple. In the early 19th century, the government required that each family belong to a shrine instead, and in the early 20th century, this was supplemented with the concept of a divine right to rule bestowed on the emperor.
The Meiji Constitution reads: "Japanese subjects shall, within limits not prejudicial to peace and order, and not antagonistic to their duties as subjects, enjoy freedom of religious belief".
Article 20 of the Constitution states: "Freedom of religion is guaranteed to all. No religious organization shall receive any privileges from the State, nor exercise any political authority. No person shall be compelled to take part in any religious act, celebration, rite or practice. The State and its organs shall refrain from religious education or any other religious activity".
This change in constitutional rights provided mechanisms for limiting state educational initiatives designed to promote Shinto beliefs in schools and freed the populace from mandatory participation in Shinto rights.
Although Yasuko won the case at two lower courts, the ruling was overturned by the Supreme Court of Japan on June 1, , based on the precedent established by the Tsu City Shinto Groundbreaking Ceremony Case.
Third, the Supreme Court adopted a narrow interpretation of individual religious rights, by ruling that violation of individual rights to religion did not occur unless the state or its organs coerced individuals to perform some religious activity or limited their religious freedom.
Shichihei Yamamoto argues that Japan has shown greater tolerance towards irreligion , saying, "Japan had nothing like the trial of Galileo or the ' monkey trial ' about evolution. No Japanese Giordano Bruno was ever burned at the stake for atheism ".
The alliance opposed the idea of kokutai , the nation's founding myth , the presence of religion in public education, and the practice of State Shinto. Their greatest opposition was towards the imperial system of Japan. They opposed "contributions to religious organizations, prayers for practical benefits kito , preaching in factories, and the religious organizations of all stripes" and viewed religion as a tool used by the upper class to suppress laborers and farmers.
According to the annual statistical research on religion in by the Agency for Culture Affairs, Government of Japan : there are thousand religious groups in Japan.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Religions practiced in Japan. Haiden of the Izanagi -jinja in Suita , Osaka. Shrine of Hachiman in Ube , Yamaguchi.
Main article: Shinto. See also: Association of Shinto Shrines. Main article: Shinto sects and schools. Further information: Japanese new religions. Myoudou-ji , a Jodo Shin temple with distinctive architectural style.
Monju-in , a Shingon temple in Matsuyama , Ehime. Inner hall of Hyakumanben chion-ji a Jodo temple in Kyoto. Main article: Buddhism in Japan. Saint Mary's Catholic Cathedral of Tokyo. A Baptist church in Futaba , Fukushima Prefecture before the disaster in Grace Church, a Reformed church in Tokyo. Main article: Christianity in Japan.
Main article: Islam in Japan.