Professional Practice Model
Nursing theory is the term given to the body of knowledge that is used to support nursing practice. Nursing models are constructed of theories and concepts. They are used to help nurses assess, plan and implement patient care by providing a framework within which to work. Nursing models also help nurses achieve uniformity and seamless care. models of patient care delivery have arisen in order to accommodate the changing roles of nurses and the various levels of nursing skill mix.5–8 These include team-oriented models such as partners in care9,10 shared care nursing,8,11 modular nursing and partners in practice,13 Evaluations of the various models of care delivery have Cited by:
This article, the third in a six-part bite-size series on nursing theories and their implications for practice, explores iw origins and value of nursing models.
Citation: Chapman H Nursing theories 3: nursing models. Nursing Times [online]; 1, The underpinning theory that guides nursing practice can sometimes be forgotten in busy clinical environments. This article, the third in whaat six-part series providing a snapshot of nursing theories and their implications for practice, discusses nursing models. Nursing models are often promoted as a way of advancing nursing science or leading to a more coherent view of nursing.
However, the purpose of any model is to most accurately reflect reality in a way that enables us to:. It is argued that nursing cannot be a what is systane gel drops used for profession unless it has its own knowledge base, organised into a model for practice, against which nursing activities and interventions can be evaluated.
This is difficult, because models of nursing incorporate ethical and philosophical perspectives that influence our understanding of knowledge and practice. Here, nursing began to use theory, evidence and research to apply, question, test and develop knowledge for practice.
Virginia Henderson developed her needs-based definition of the unique whxt of nursing in the s, highlighting the importance nursinng self-awareness in providing therapeutic psychological support. She identified 14 patient needs for the nurse to support, including breathing, eating and drinking, and eliminating, but also communicating and worshipping according to faith Henderson, It provided a theoretical framework for the nursing process and was considered to be a humanistic alternative to the reductionist medical model.
Other models feature supporting people to adapt to changing environments Callista Roypromoting self-help Dorothea Orem or congruence between the mind, body and soul Jean Watson Hood, Although all of these models have been used for research, education and practice, the sheer number and diversity of models available makes a single model of nursing problematic. Contemporary nursing research uses theoretical concepts from a wide variety of academic disciplines.
Provided we make our theoretical basis explicit, this is helpful in developing our evidence base and producing high-quality interdisciplinary knowledge. However, the nrusing of nursing needs wider debate. The six core concepts of UK nursing — the 6Cs Department of Health, — underline ethical and humanitarian care within nursing practice, but are not clearly defined or linked to related theoretical concepts such as empathy or respect.
Neither do they make it clear how nurses can incorporate them into complex situations. Nursing is a person-centred, ethics-based practice discipline that addresses biopsychosocial needs to promote health and wellbeing. It does not need to invent models to define itself — nurses already develop knowledge for practice moxel research uniting our own and other disciplines without additional layers of complexity. Models should represent the state of our knowledge and what is a nursing model of the world, otherwise they will become extinct as a result of being vague and irrelevant.
Box 1 outlines some key aspects of nursing that all those within the profession should aim to undertake. Geneva: International Council of Modle. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone. Sign in or Register a new account to join the discussion. You are here: Nurse educators. Nursing theories 3: nursing models. Author: Hazel Chapman is postgraduate tutor, University of Chester. Scroll down to read the article or download a print-friendly PDF here Click here to see other articles in this series.
Box 1. Also in this series Nursing theories 1: person-centred care Nursing theories 2: clinical supervision Nursing theories 4: adherence and concordance Nursing theories 5: gender theory Nursing theories 6: social class. Related files. NT Contributor.
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The Human Caring Theory
Sep 10, · Nursing theories provide a way to define nursing as a unique discipline that is separate from other disciplines (e.g., medicine). It is a framework of concepts and purposes intended to guide nursing practice at a more concrete and specific level. Primary Nursing Primary Nursing is a relationship-based model which includes therapeutic presence, autonomy, evidence-based practice, and collaboration. Nursing presence is a relationship between the nurse and the patient in which the nurse approaches the patient in a holistic way recognizing each patient as a unique individual. May 14, · There is no definition of the nursing model, but nursing has some practice models/theories that emphasize the more holistic approach to disease that is taken by nursing. For example, three British nurses back in the ’90s came up Author: Shirie Leng, MD.
The nursing profession has impressively evolved over time, and along with this transition came the development of different nursing theories. These theories provide the foundation of nursing practice, specifically nursing assessment, intervention, and evaluation. They also offer a framework for generating knowledge and new ideas. Nursing theory is the backbone of clinical care.
Therefore, we have to know them all by heart. Here are 38 great nursing theories to practice by:. This mid-range theory serves as a framework for nurses in providing appropriate health care interventions to mothers, helping them develop a strong maternal identity. The basic concept of the Maternal Role Attainment Theory is the developmental and interactional process, in which the mother bonds with her baby while acquiring competence and expressing joy in her role as a mother.
Ramona Mercer spent more than 30 years doing research about parenting in low and high-risk situations as well as transition into the maternal role.
She began with a study of mothers who gave birth to infants with a birth defect She focused next on teenage mothers during their first year of motherhood. Her research has provided clinicians with information on how to make a difference in the lives of new parents.
The latter states that there are three factors that influence self-efficacy: Behavior, environment, and personal factors. These factors affect each other, but the personal or cognitive factors are the most important.
Bandura focuses on the acquisition of behaviors. He believes that people acquire behaviors through the observation of others, and then imitation of what they have observed. This is the first step towards regaining control over their lives.
For nurses to begin the process of engagement using the Tidal Model, the following needs to be accepted: recovery is possible; change is inevitable; ultimately, the patient knows what is best for him or her; the patient possesses all the resources he or she needs to begin the recovery journey; the patient is the teacher, while the helpers are the pupils; and the helper needs to be creatively curious, and to learn what needs to be done to help the person.
The Life Perspective Rhythm Model includes the concepts of nursing, person, health, and environment. The model contributes to nursing knowledge by providing taxonomy for identifying and labeling nursing concepts. In this model, health is identified as a basic human dimension in continuous development.
The model recognizes individuals as having unique biological, psychological, emotional, social, cultural, and spiritual attitudes. Optimum health is described as the actualization of both innate and obtained human potential, goal-directed behavior, and expert personal care.
The Theory of Comfort is a mid-range theory for health practice, education, and research. It has the potential to place comfort in the forefront of healthcare. According to this theory, every patient has varying range of adaptive responses, which depend on factors such as age, gender, and illness.
The goal is to promote adaptation and maintain wholeness by using the principles of conservation. She published Introduction to Clinical Nursing in , with additional editions printed in and Driving forces are those that cause change to occur.
They facilitate change because they push the patient in a desired direction. Restraining forces, on the other hand, are those forces that counter the driving forces.
They hinder change because they push the patient in the opposite direction. Lastly, equilibrium is a situation wherein driving forces equal restraining forces, and no change occurs. Kurt Lewin was born in in Germany.
When his family moved to Berlin in , he entered the University of Freiburg to study medicine, but opted to study biology instead, which prompted him to transfer to the University of Munich. He spent six months as a visiting professor at Stanford University in Jacob Fine. He is now considered the father of social psychology. It focuses on three areas: individual characteristics and experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and behavioral outcomes. The theory underscores that each person has unique characteristics that may affect their actions.
She earned her PhD from Northwestern University in She is the co-founder of the Midwest Nursing Research Society, and is currently serving as a trustee. Now a retiree, Pender also spends her time consulting on health promotion research nationally and internationally. The problems fall into three categories: physical, sociological, and emotional needs of patients; types of interpersonal relationships between the patient and nurse; and common elements of patient care.
The patient needs are then divided into four categories which include basic to all patients, sustenant care needs, remedial care needs, and restorative care needs. The twenty-one problems can be applied to the nursing process. In the assessment phase, the nursing problems provide guidelines for data collection. Faye Glenn Abdellah was the first nurse officer to ever earn the ranking of a two-star rear admiral.
She was also the first nurse and woman to serve as a Deputy Surgeon General. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible. The Goal Attainment Theory describes a dynamic, interpersonal relationship in which a patient grows and develops to attain certain goals in life.
The model has three interacting systems: personal, interpersonal, and social. Each of these systems has its own set of concepts. According to King, a human being is a social being who is rational and sentient. He or she is able to perceive, think, feel, choose, set goals, select means to achieve goals, and make decisions. He or she has three fundamental needs: the need for health information when it is needed and can be used; the need for care that seeks to prevent illness; and the need for care when he or she is unable to help him or herself.
Louis, Missouri, in In , she earned her Bachelor of Science in Nursing from St. In , she earned her doctoral degree from Teachers College, Columbia University. The Helvie Energy Theory revolves around the concept of energy. The individual can be viewed as an energy field affecting and being affected by all other energy fields in the physical, biological, chemical and psychosocial environments as well as community subsystems through exchanges.
These exchanges of energy and individual success or failure in adaptation determine actual or potential placement on an energy continuum, and the need for assistance from the health practitioner.
This theory is applied in practice through a process of assessing, planning, intervening, and evaluating. Carl Helvie is a registered nurse who earned his masters in public health nursing focusing on wellness from the University of California. He then earned his second masters degree in public health and wellness from the John Hopkins University, and his post doctoral study in the Divinity school at Duke University.
For 60 years, he became a nurse practitioner, educator, author, and researcher. He helped thousands of patients improve their health and taught around 4, graduate and undergraduate nursing students. In , he taught at the University of Applied Sciences in Frankfurt, Germany and served as a nursing consultant to Russia.
The theory identifies four main elements in clinical nursing: a philosophy, a purpose, a practice, and the art. It explains that knowledge encompasses all that has been perceived and grasped by the human mind. According to the theory, a nurse uses two types of judgment in dealing with patients: clinical and sound. Sound judgment, on the other hand, is the result of disciplined functioning of mind and emotions, and improves with expanded knowledge and increased clarity of professional purpose.
The following year, she joined the faculty of Yale University as an instructor in maternity nursing. She became an assistant professor of obstetric nursing in When we use our helping skills effectively, we can be healthy and can help each other in actualizing our human potential.
The only meaning to life is to grow, as growing is life. Robert Carkhuff, Ph. He is already among the most prolific scientists of the 21st century with more than 15 major works. This theory centers on the patient as an individual and his relationship with biological, psychological, sociocultural, environmental, and politicoeconomic factors, among others. Nancy Roper started her nursing career in Wetheral near Carlisle as a student. In , when Roper became a state registered nurse, several of the nurse teaching staff had been called up as members of the Territorial Army.
She achieved MPhil degree at Edinburgh University in , and then worked as the first nursing research officer for the Scottish Home and Health Department. Winifred Logan earned her M. Later, she was able to establish nursing services in Abu Dhabi. She was promoted as a personal chair in nursing research after ten years of working as the Director of Nursing Research at the University of Edinburgh.
Later, she joined Roper and Logan as they began to develop, refine, and publish the Activities of Living Model. The Humanistic Nursing Theory applies both humanism and existentialism to nursing theory. Existentialism, on the other hand, is the belief that thinking begins with the human — the feeling, acting, and living individual. As soon as a patient and a nurse come together, nursing dialogue begins. The nurse presents herself as a helper who is ready to assist and care for the patient.
Josephine Paterson is originally from the east coast while Dr. Loretta Zderad is from the mid-west. Paterson did her graduate work at Johns Hopkins and Dr. Zderad did hers at Catholic University. In the mid-fifties, they were both employed at The Catholic University and worked together to create a new program that would encompass the community health and psychiatric components of the graduate program.
Josephine Paterson and Loretta Zderad retired in and moved South where they are currently enjoying life. Although they are no longer active, they are pleased at the on going interest in their theory. The nurse then make a nursing care plan based on the culturalogical assessment. Leininger identified three nursing actions that achieve culturally friendly care for the patient: cultural preservation or maintenance, cultural care accommodation or negotiation, and cultural care repatterning or restructuring.