How Transistors Work
Jan 06, · A transistor is an electronic component used in a circuit to control a large amount of current or voltage with a small amount of voltage or current. This means that it can be used to amplify or switch (rectify) electrical signals or power, allowing it . Sep 09, · Transistors are one of the most commonly used elements in electronic circuits. Their ease of use and simple working principle is what makes them popular among electronic designers. They mainly perform two functions: switching and amplification.
A transistor is an electronic component used in a circuit to control a large amount of current or voltage with a small amount of voltage or current. This means that it can be used to amplify or switch rectify electrical signals or power, allowing it to be used in a wide array of electronic devices.
It does so by sandwiching one semiconductor between two other semiconductors. Because the current is transferred across a material that normally has high resistance i. Patents for the concept of a transistor date as far back as in Germany, though they seem to have never been built, or at least no one ever claimed to have built them. The three physicists received the Nobel Prize in Physics for this work. There are essentially two basic types of point-contact transistors, the npn transistor and the pnp transistor, where the n and p stand for negative and positive, respectively.
The only difference between the two is the arrangement of bias voltages. To understand how a transistor works, you have to understand how semiconductors react to an electric potential. Some semiconductors will be n -type, or doew, which means that free electrons doed the material drift from a negative electrode of, say, a battery it's connected to toward the positive.
Other semiconductors will be p -type, in what does a transistor do case the electrons fill "holes" in the atomic electron shells, meaning that it behaves as if a positive particle is moving from the positive electrode to the negative whta.
The type is determined by the atomic structure of the specific semiconductor what is relapse prevention training. Now, consider an npn transistor.
Each end of the transistor is an n -type semiconductor wuat and between them is a p -type semiconductor material. If you picture such a device plugged into a battery, you'll see how the transistor works:. By varying the potential in each region, then, you can drastically affect the rate of electron flow across the transistor.
Compared to the vacuum tubes that were used previously, the transistor was an amazing advance. Smaller in size, the transistor could easily be manufactured cheaply in large quantities. They had various operational advantages, as well, which are too numerous to mention here.
Some consider the transistor to be the what does a transistor do single invention of the 20th century since it opened so much in the way of other electronic advancements. Virtually every modern electronic device has a transistor as one of its primary active components. Because they are the building blocks of microchips, computer, phones, and other devices whag exist without transistors.
There are a wide variety of transistor types that have been developed since Here's a list not necessarily exhaustive of various types of transistors:. Edited by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph. Actively scan device characteristics for identification. Use precise geolocation data. What is the old capital of brazil personalised content.
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Updated January 06, Cite this Article Format. Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. What Is a Transistor? Kirchhoff's Laws for Current and Voltage. Find the Anode and What high school did chris brown go to of a Galvanic Cell.
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What exactly is a transistor, anyway?
Jan 01, · Transistors are devices that control the movement of electrons, and consequently, electricity. They work something like a water faucet -- not only do they start and stop the flow of a current, but they also control the amount of the odishahaalchaal.com: Nathan Chandler. Mar 10, · Transistors can basically be grouped in two categories: junction transistors and field effect transistors. The reservoir, pipe and handle in the junction transistors are called the emitter, collector and base, respectively. The collector is denoted by “n+”, highlighting a glut of negatively charged particles (electrons). Mar 17, · A transistor works like a switch. It can turn ON and OFF. Or even "partly on", to act as an amplifier. Learn how transistors work below.
By: Nathan Chandler. Transistors are devices that control the movement of electrons, and consequently, electricity. They work something like a water faucet -- not only do they start and stop the flow of a current, but they also control the amount of the current. With electricity , transistors can both switch or amplify electronic signals, letting you control current moving through a circuit board with precision. The transistors made at Bell Labs were initially made from the element germanium.
Scientists there knew pure germanium was a good insulator. But adding impurities a process called doping changed the germanium into a weak conductor, or semiconductor. Semiconductors are materials that have properties in-between insulators and conductors, allowing electrical conductivity in varying degrees. The timing of the invention of transistors was no accident. To work properly, transistors require pure semiconductor materials.
It just so happened that right after World War II, improvements in germanium refinement, as well as advances in doping, made germanium suitable for semiconductor applications.
Depending on the element used for doping, the resulting germanium layer was either negative type N-type , or positive type P-type. In an N-type layer , the doping element added electrons to the germanium, making it easier for electrons to surge out. Conversely, in a P-type layer , specific doping elements caused the germanium to lose electrons, thus, electrons from adjacent materials flowed towards it. Place the N-type and P-type adjacent to each other and you create a P-N diode. This diode allows an electrical current to flow, but in only one direction, a useful property in the construction of electronic circuits.
Full-fledged transistors were the next step. To create transistors, engineers layered doped germanium to make two layers back to back, in a configuration of either P-N-P or N-P-N.
The point of contact was called a junction, thus the name junction transistor. With an electrical current applied to the center layer called the base , electrons will move from the N-type side to the P-type side. The initial small trickle acts as a switch that allows much larger current to flow. In an electric circuit, this means that transistors are acting as both a switch and an amplifier.
These days, in place of germanium, commercial electronics use silicon-based semiconductors, which are more reliable and more affordable than germanium-based transistors. But once the technology caught on, germanium transistors were in widespread use for more than 20 years. Prev NEXT. Solid State Electronics.
Transistors enable the design of a huge array of technological feats that were impossible with vacuum tubes. Cite This! Print Citation. More Awesome Stuff.