Humanitarian Intervention: A Legal Analysis
Jun 28, · Customary law systems are based on patterns of behavior (or customs) that have come to be accepted as legal requirements or rules of conduct within a particular country. The laws of customary legal systems are usually unwritten and are often dispensed by elders, passed down through generations. Customary marriages are those concluded in accordance with customary law, which is defined in the Recognition of Customary Marriages Act as "the customs and usages traditionally observed among the indigenous African peoples of South Africa and which form part of the culture of those peoples.".
If there is to be humanitarian what does under agreement mean in real estate, there should be a coherent humanitarian justification coupled with a proper procedural and substantive legal regime to how to get rid of popped pimples fast it.
Humanitarian intervention is a means to prevent or stop a gross violation of human rights in a state, where such state is either incapable or unwilling to protect its own people, or is actively persecuting them. More recently, the military intervention in Libya, though frowned upon by several states in the international community, can be said to be lawful since it was authorized by the Security Council in Resolutionin ostensible exercise of its powers under Chapter VII of the UN Charter.
You can look at it. And when you do, you discover that virtually every use of military force is described as humanitarian intervention. Therefore, it is no longer about whether a state should intervene or not, but rather, that a law should be brought into place for the state that intervenes to conform to, in its modus operandi. The most important principle in international law is the inviolability of the territorial sovereignty of states.
The principle of respect for the territorial integrity of states is well founded as one of the linchpins of the international system, as is the norm prohibiting interference in the internal affairs of other states. The accepted exception to this principle, which has now become a peremptory norm from which no derogation is permissible or jus cogens as it is known,  is only the right to self-defence under Article 51 of the UN Charter, and Collective Security measures under Chapter VII of the UN Charter.
In pre-Charter law, there was some support for the consideration of custokary intervention as legal. Therefore, with Article 2 4 replacing pre-Charter law, there seems to be some sort of a discrepancy in reconciling present-day events involving humanitarian intervention and the letter of the law as it stands. A cursory perusal of Article 2 4 does not suffuse any intervention on humanitarian grounds with legality, unless one follows a radical mode of legal interpretation and reads in additional words that are not already there in the text.
Tye the Nicaragua Case the ICJ had explicitly ruled that the use of force could not be the appropriate method to monitor or ensure respect for human rights, that there is no general right of intervention in international law and, therefore, intervention violated international law. Although humanitarian intervention does exist in state practice, and although state practice is deemed a source of law as under Article 38 1 a of the Statute of the ICJ,  considering the hegemony of the sources of law in the same provision, there is a generally accepted notion that customagy practice cannot over rule treaty and customary law, both of which denounce the use of force except in self-defence.
Despite its putative illegality, there is no denying that Humanitarian Intervention exists. There is no legal rule governing the exception of humanitarian intervention to the use of force, as there is for the use of collective security measures and self-defence.
Commentators in support of humanitarian intervention argue that if humanitarian intervention were legal, the very cost of the potential abuse of pretextual interventions would outweigh any benefit from altruistic interventions. According legality to humanitarian intervention does not mean a blind acceptance of humanitarian intervention as permissible in law, but that it is acceptable only if it adheres to a predetermined yardstick. Seeing as though cusotmary right to self-defence is being regulated by charactristics, there is little how to tell if your number has been blocked that a legal provision would be adequate in helping streamline the deployment of humanitarian intervention.
Given that humanitarian intervention exists, the law must rise to the occasion and evolve a framework to accommodate and regulate the phenomenon.
This is not difficult in International Law, especially since one of the special characteristics of International Law is that violations of law may lead to the formation of a new law, so that an international custom could be intentionally created. Some experts argue that intervention on humanitarian grounds must be approved by the Security Council customaru stand the test of legality. While in principle, it can be construed so, there have been plenty of instances when the Security Council has failed in its responsibility for collective security.
Though it is a step in the right direction to understand chsracteristics recognize the fact that the Security Council must be the authorizing body, what are the characteristics of customary law is equally important to have a roadmap of sorts drawn up for the organ to evaluate each situation and determine whether it warrants intervention. In terms of charactdristics provisions the legal framework could contain, there are several aspects that must be handled.
A legal instrument or provision in itself is not a safeguard. A law cannot guarantee complete success of every endeavour of intervention on humanitarian grounds.
But, with a law in place, a minimum standard of accepted behaviour how to create a sharepoint site 2010 procedure is set. An accepted chzracteristics could well prove to be useful in setting right the chaotic state of affairs as they exist presently.
At a time when the practice has already been oft employed in foreign policy, there is no doubt that a state can intervene on humanitarian grounds. Scholarly debates should stop focussing on whether the practice should be allowed or not, and shift to evaluate the expected standard and yardstick of behaviour that must be adhered to during llaw intervention on humanitarian grounds.
The fact is that humanitarian intervention is here to stay, and instead of trying to get rid of it there is more prudence in allowing the lesser evil of a streamlined and legally-regulated form of humanitarian intervention to continue. Kirthi Jayakumar is a graduate of the School of Excellence in Law. Britain intervened in Greece in ; France sent a military expedition to Syria and Lebanon in ; Britain sent troops to Crete in Shaw, International Law 6 th ed.
Franck and N. Charter, 4 CAL. Oxford: Oxford University Press, She currently also volunteers with the United Nations, and works with Femina and Rainmaker as a writer. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing. Whzt is an independent non-profit publisher run by an all volunteer team. Your donations allow us to invest in new open access titles and pay our bandwidth bills to ensure we keep our existing titles free to view.
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Jan 28, · The third source of international law as enumerated in Article 38 are "general principles of law" recognized by "civilized" nations. The Guide to International Legal Research states that "this traditional naturalist approach provides a basis for decision when other sources offer no guidance, yet it is unclear what these general principles of law are. Feb 06, · Over the last forty years, a number of governments have justified unilateral military action with reference to the “customary law” of military humanitarian intervention in one form or another, and without exception, the international community has refused to recognize these actions as legitimate. But this “customary law” is reckless and offers absolutely no guidance to the manner in. Science fiction, abbreviation SF or sci-fi, a form of fiction that deals principally with the impact of actual or imagined science upon society or odishahaalchaal.com term science fiction was popularized, if not invented, in the s by one of the genre’s principal advocates, the American publisher Hugo odishahaalchaal.com Hugo Awards, given annually since by the World Science Fiction Society.
If you have any question you can ask below or enter what you are looking for! Introduction 1 A subject of international law is an entity possessing international rights and obligations and having the capacity a to maintain its rights by bringing international claims; 2 and b to be responsible for its breaches of obligation by being subjected to such claims.
All that can be said is that an entity of a type recognized by customary law as capable of possessing rights and duties and of bringing and being subjected to international claims is a legal person. If the latter condition is not satisfied, the entity concerned may have legal personality of a very restricted kind, dependent on the agreement or acquiescence of recognized legal persons and opposable on the international plane only to those agreeing or acquiescent.
The principal formal contexts in which the question of personality has arisen have been: capacity to make claims in respect of breaches of international law, capacity to make treaties and agreements valid on the international plane, and the enjoyment of privileges and immunities from national jurisdiction. States pre-eminently have these capacities and immunities; indeed the incidents of statehood as developed under customary law have provided the indicia for, and instruments of personality in relation to, other entities.
Apart from states, organizations may have these capacities and immunities if certain conditions are satisfied. The capacity to claim under international law, at least for organizations of a certain type, was established in Reparation for Injuries. Thus it is states and organizations which represent the normal types of legal person on the international plane.
However, the realities of international relations are not reducible to a simple formula. In spite of the complexities, it is as well to remember the primacy of states as subjects of the law. As Friedmann observes:. The States are the repositories of legitimated authority over peoples and territories. It is only in terms of State powers, prerogatives, jurisdictional limits and law-making capabilities that territorial limits and jurisdiction, responsibility for official actions, and a host of other questions of co-existence between nations can be determined…This basic primacy of the State as a subject of international relations and law would be substantially affected, and eventually superseded, only if national entities, as political and legal systems, were absorbed in a world state.
This category is by far the most important, but it has its own problems, analysed in chapter 5. In some federations notably those created by a union of states at the international level , the constituent members retain certain residual capacities. In the constitutions of Switzerland 8 and Germany, 9 component states are permitted to exercise certain state functions, including treaty-making.
Normally, the states, even when acting in their own name, do so as agents for the union. Political settlements have from time to time produced entities, such as the former Free City of Danzig, which, possessing a certain autonomy, territory and population, and some legal capacities on the international plane, are more or less like states. Politically such entities are not states in the normal sense, yet legally the distinction is not very significant.
The treaty origin of the entity and the existence of some form of protection by an international organization—the League of Nations in the case of Danzig—matter little if, in the result, the entity has autonomy and a nucleus of the more significant legal capacities, for example the power to make treaties, to maintain References p.
The jurisprudence of the Permanent Court recognized that Danzig had international personality proximate to that of a state, except insofar as treaty obligations created special relations in regard to the League and to Poland. The point is that a special status may attach without the creation of a legal person.
An area within a state may be given a certain autonomy under treaty without this leading to any degree of separate personality on the international plane: this was the case with the Memel Territory, which had a special status in the period to yet remained part of Lithuania. A belligerent community often represents a political movement aiming at secession: outside the colonial context, states have been reluctant to accord any form of recognition in such cases, including recognition of belligerency.
In relation to territories marked out by the UN as under a regime of illegal occupation and qualified for rapid transition to independence, an interim transitional regime may be installed under UN supervision.
In the long-drawn-out crisis concerning the illegal Indonesian occupation of East Timor was the subject of decisive action by the Security Council. After elections, East Timor Timor-Leste became independent in Following unsuccessful References p. SC Resolution could not be interpreted as precluding all action aimed at resolving the impasse which the parties beyond question had reached.
Neither had done so. Apparently, guarantees of international territorial administration go only so far, as against claims to sovereignty. The conditions under which an organization acquires legal personality on the international plane are examined in chapter 7.
The most important person of this type is the United Nations. Entities, acting with delegated powers from states, may appear to enjoy a separate personality and viability on the international plane. Examples are the administration of a condominium , a standing arbitral tribunal, the International Joint Commission set up under an agreement concerning boundary waters between Canada and the US and the former European Commission References p.
Moreover while international human rights law recognizes a variety of rights for individuals and even corporations , the norms of human rights law are not yet regarded as applying horizontally between individuals, in parallel to or substitution for the applicable national law. To the extent that some human rights instruments include provisions dealing with individual responsibilities as well as rights, international law provides no means for their enforcement.
In practical terms, human rights and other obligations assumed for the benefit of individuals and corporations arise against the state, which so far has a virtual monopoly of responsibility.
Reference to states and similar political entities, to organizations, and to individuals does not exhaust the tally of entities active on the international scene. Corporations, whether private or public, often engage in economic activity in one or more states other than the state under the law of which they were incorporated or in which they have their economic seat.
The resources available to the individual corporation may be greater than those of the smaller states, and they may have powerful diplomatic backing from their home government. Such corporations can and do make agreements, p. Thus a concession or contract between a state and a foreign corporation is not governed by the law of treaties.
On the other hand conduct of corporations may sometimes be attributed to the state for the purposes of responsibility, and separate state-controlled entities may be able to plead state immunity before foreign courts. It will not always be easy to distinguish corporations which are so closely controlled by governments as to be state agencies for such purposes.
At the same time, the treaty may contain obligations to create a privileged status under the national law or laws to which the corporation is subjected. The parties by their agreement may accord certain immunities to the institution created and confer on it various powers.
An example of an intergovernmental enterprise of this kind is Eurofima, a company set up by a treaty involving 14 states in , with the object of improving the resources of railway rolling stock.
The treaty established Eurofima as a corporation under Swiss law subject to certain modifications. The corporation is international in function and the 14 participating railway administrations provide the capital. The corporation is also given privileges on the international plane, including exemption from taxation in Switzerland, the state of domicile. This type of arrangement is the product of a careful interlocking of national and international legal orders on a treaty basis, and the product will vary considerably from case to case.
Fastest Law Search Engine If you have any question you can ask below or enter what you are looking for! Established Legal Persons A States This category is by far the most important, but it has its own problems, analysed in chapter 5. B Entities Legally Proximate to States Political settlements have from time to time produced entities, such as the former Free City of Danzig, which, possessing a certain autonomy, territory and population, and some legal capacities on the international plane, are more or less like states.
D International Administration of Territories Prior to Independence In relation to territories marked out by the UN as under a regime of illegal occupation and qualified for rapid transition to independence, an interim transitional regime may be installed under UN supervision.
E International Organizations The conditions under which an organization acquires legal personality on the international plane are examined in chapter 7. Special Types of Personality A Corporations, Public and Private Reference to states and similar political entities, to organizations, and to individuals does not exhaust the tally of entities active on the international scene. Only gold members can continue reading. Log In or Register to continue.